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Nuclear Decay. Graphic: www.lab-initio.com. Nuclear Symbols. Mass number, A (p + + n o ). Element symbol. Atomic number, Z (number of p + ). Balancing Nuclear Equations.  A reactants =  A products. 235 + 1 = 142 + 91 + 3(1).

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nuclear decay

Nuclear Decay

Graphic: www.lab-initio.com

nuclear symbols
Nuclear Symbols

Mass number, A

(p+ + no)

Element symbol

Atomic number, Z

(number of p+)

balancing nuclear equations
Balancing Nuclear Equations

Areactants = Aproducts

235 + 1 = 142 + 91 + 3(1)

92 + 0 = 56 + 36 + 3(0)

Zreactants = Zproducts

balancing nuclear equations 2
Balancing Nuclear Equations #2

222

226 = 4 + ____

222

Rn

86

86

88 = 2 + ___

Atomic number 86 is radon, Rn

balancing nuclear equations 3
Balancing Nuclear Equations #3

95

235 + 1 = 139 + 2(1) + ____

95

Y

39

39

92 + 0 = 53 + 2(0) + ____

Atomic number 39 is yttrium, Y

alpha decay
Alpha Decay

Alpha production (a):

an alpha particle is a

helium nucleus

Alpha decay is limited to heavy, radioactive

nuclei

alpha radiation
Alpha Radiation

Limited to VERY large nucleii.

beta decay
Beta Decay

Beta production (b):

A beta particle is an

electron ejected from

the nucleus

Beta emission converts a neutron to a proton

beta radiation
Beta Radiation

Converts a neutron into a proton.

gamma ray production
Gamma Ray Production

Gamma ray production (g):

Gamma rays are high energy photons produced in association with other forms of decay.

Gamma rays are massless and do not, by themselves, change the nucleus

gamma ray production11
Gamma Ray Production

Gamma ray production (g):

Gamma rays are high energy photons produced in association with other forms of decay.

Gamma rays are massless and do not, by themselves, change the nucleus

positron production
Positron Production

Positron emission:

Positrons are the anti-particle of the electron

Positron emission converts a proton to a neutron

electron capture
Electron Capture

Electron capture: (inner-orbital electron is captured by the nucleus)

Electron capture converts a proton to a neutron

nuclear stability
NuclearStability

Decay will occur in such a way as to return a nucleus to the band (line) of stability.

The most stable nuclide is Iron-56

If Z > 83, the nuclide is radioactive

Graphic – Wikimedia user : Napy1kenobi

a decay series
A Decay Series

A radioactive nucleus reaches a stable state by a series of steps

Graphic – Wikimedia Commons User Tosaka

half life
Half-life

Graphic - http://cafreetextbooks.ck12.org/science/CK12_Earth_Science_rev.pdf

decay kinetics
Decay Kinetics

Decay occurs by first order kinetics (the rate of decay is proportional to the number of nuclides present)

N0 = number of nuclides

present initially

N = number of nuclides

remaining at time t

k = rate constant

t = elapsed time

calculating half life
Calculating Half-life

t1/2 = Half-life (units dependent on rate constant, k)