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Enzymes and Metabolism Biochemistry – Part One

Enzymes and Metabolism Biochemistry – Part One. Microbiology. Metabolism. The sum total of all cellular reactions. Metabolism. Anabolism - The total of all biosynthetic processes in the cell Catabolism - The energy generating processes in the cell. Energy.

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Enzymes and Metabolism Biochemistry – Part One

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  1. Enzymes and MetabolismBiochemistry – Part One Microbiology

  2. Metabolism • The sum total of all cellular reactions

  3. Metabolism • Anabolism - The total of all biosynthetic processes in the cell • Catabolism - The energy generating processes in the cell

  4. Energy • Energy releasing reactions are exergonic – the free energy is released to be used in the cell for other operations • Reactions in which the amount of energy required for their initiation than the energy released are endergonic

  5. Biochemical Reactions enzyme • Reactant(s) Product(s) ( substrate) Great specificity of the enzyme for the substrate Envisioned as a lock and key More probable like an induced fit

  6. Enzymes • Are biological catalysts • Proteins • Their tertiary structure produces a specific site for the interaction of reactants(substrates)

  7. Enzymes • Form temporary intermolecular forces with the substrate • Orient the substrate so the reaction occur • Associates two substrates that are in equally low concentrations in the cell

  8. Enzyme-Substratehttp://programs.northlandcollege.edu/biology/Biology1111/animations/enzyme.swfEnzyme-Substratehttp://programs.northlandcollege.edu/biology/Biology1111/animations/enzyme.swf

  9. Enzyme-Substratehttp://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/proteins/enzsub.htmlEnzyme-Substratehttp://student.ccbcmd.edu/~gkaiser/biotutorials/proteins/enzsub.html

  10. Protease – breaks down proteins • DNase breaks down and recycles DNA • Kinase- tranfers phosphate from ATP to another molecule

  11. Activation energy

  12. Activation energy • Activation energy is the energy required to start a biochemical reaction • All biochemical reactins require a biochemical catalyst to reduce the amount of energy required to initiate the reaction

  13. Factors that Affect the rate of an Enzyme reaction • Temperature • pH • Concentration of enzyme • Concentration of substrate

  14. Optimal Temperature and pH

  15. Competitive Inhibition

  16. Non Competitive Inhibitor

  17. NAD- Coenzyme

  18. NAD+

  19. FAD Coenzyme

  20. REDOX Reactions • Oxidation is the loss of electrosn( e-), the loss of hydrogen(H), and the gain of oxygen • Reduction is the gain of electrons, the gain of Hydrogen, and the loss of oxygen

  21. REDOX


  23. Feedback Inhibition

  24. Allosteric Interactions

  25. Coupled reactions • Reactions which require the input of energy must be coupled to the hydrolysis of ATP

  26. student.ccbcmd.edu/.../energy/adpan.html

  27. Terms • Chemo – chemical energy • Photo – light energy • Organo – organic molecules • Litho – uptake larger organic molecules for biosynthesis • Auto – produces its own organic molecules from basic molecules

  28. Chemoorganoheterotroph • Uses organic molecules for a Carbon source and as an energy source • Pathogens exhibit this type of metabolism

  29. Chemolithoautotroph • Uses inorganic molecules as a carbon source and energy source • Extremophiles, nitrogen fixing bacteria, thermophiles, and methanogens

  30. Photolithoautotroph • Uses light energy as an energy source and inorganic CO2 as a carbon source. • Conventional photosynthesis – Cyanobacteria • Chlorophyll as si the primary phtosynthetic pigment • Capture light energy at 420 and 620+ nm

  31. Photoorganoheterotroph • Use light energy to trasnform to energy for biological processes • Uses alternative pigments to capture light

  32. Pathways

  33. Pathways begin with one molecule and end with a product • Glycolysis – Catabolic pathway – energy producing – breaks down glucose • Gluconeogensis – Anabolic – requires the inpute of energy – produces sugars and carbohydrates

  34. Cycles

  35. Krebs – Citric Acid

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