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Organic Approaches to Disease Control. George Driever Area Pest Management Specialist Cooperative Extension Service Oklahoma State University. Plant pathogens. Fungi Bacteria Viruses Phytoplasms Nematodes. Environment. Disease. Time. Pathogen. Host. DISEASE TRIANGLE.

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organic approaches to disease control

Organic Approaches to Disease Control

George Driever

Area Pest Management Specialist

Cooperative Extension Service

Oklahoma State University

plant pathogens
Plant pathogens
  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Phytoplasms
  • Nematodes
slide3

Environment

Disease

Time

Pathogen

Host

DISEASE TRIANGLE

identifying diseases by symptoms
Identifying Diseases by Symptoms
  • Fungi – spots, lesions, blights, yellowing of leaves, wilts, cankers, rots, fruiting bodies
  • Bacteria – water-soaking, spots, wilts, rots, blights, cankers, exudates, galls, yellowing
  • Viruses – mottling, leaf and stem distortions, stunting
  • Phytoplasms – similar to virus symptoms
  • Nematodes – stunting, dying plants
difficulties in identification
Difficulties in Identification
  • Plant pathogens are very small
  • Similar symptoms between bacteria and fungi and between fungal groups
  • Field diagnosis is difficult
  • Multiple pathogens may be present at the same time.
  • Multiple symptoms may be present
methods of disease control
Methods of Disease Control
  • Cultural
  • Chemical
  • Biological
cultural disease control
Cultural Disease Control
  • Develop soil rich in organic matter
  • Plant on raised beds
  • Plant tolerant or resistant varieties
  • Crop rotation
  • Plants adapted to area
  • Plant at proper depth (below crown or graft)
  • Use only thoroughly composted material
cultural disease control cont d
Cultural Disease Control cont’d
  • Soil pH adjustment
  • Improve air circulation by staking, trellis or pruning
  • Remove weeds: carry disease, circulation
  • Water in the morning
  • Avoid high angle sprinklers
  • Do not over fertilize
  • Remove diseased plants and destroy
exclusion of disease
Exclusion of Disease
  • Certified disease free plants
  • Prevent introduction of diseased plants or soil
  • Disease free water source
  • Control insects that can carry disease
  • Soil solarization
chemical controls
Chemical Controls
  • Hydrated Lime
  • Lime sulfur
  • Coppers
  • Horticultural Oils
  • Essential Oils
  • Bicarbonates
  • Antibiotics
hydrated lime
Hydrated Lime
  • pH adjustment
  • Component of Bordeaux mixture
lime sulphur
Lime Sulphur
  • Use as a protectant dust or spray to control some fungal or bacterial diseases
  • Helps control peach leaf curl, rust, powdery mildew (PM), brown rot
  • Lilly Miller Poly Sul Lime Sulfur – Calcium Polysulfide – 28.7%
  • Generic and other brands available
coppers
Coppers
  • Controls some fungi and Fireblight
  • Free Cu - Copper sulfate: Bordeaux mixture
  • Fixed Cu - copper hydroxide, copper oxide, copper oxychloride, copper octanoate
  • Kocides – restricted use, requires license
  • Safer Garden fungicide – Cu 12% or 0.4% : rust, scab, brown spot, black spot, others
copper
Copper
  • Bonide Liquid Cu – Cu octanoate 0.08% : PM, rust, black spot, late blight, others
  • Bonide Copper Garden Dust – copper sulfate and rotenone for fruits, garden, and flowers
  • Lilly Miller Cueva Cu soap – Cu octanoate 0.08%: PM, DM, gray mold, blight, spots
  • Many other brands
horticultural oils
Horticultural oils
  • Mostly controls foliar insects, but also peach leaf curl, and some other fungi
  • Dormant, suffocating, summer oils
  • Fungus Pharm – soybean oil plus Rosemary oil 0.1%
essential oils
Essential Oils
  • Neem oil – up to 70%: many brands that control insects, mites and some fungi such as PM, rust, scab, leaf spots, anthracnose and black spot
  • Green Light Organic fungicide – Rosemary Oil 0.2%: anthracnose, blights, gray mold, PM, DM, leaf spots, scab, rusts, others
bicarbonates
Bicarbonates
  • Potassium Bicarbonate – disrupts cell membrane K balance

Bi Carb - K bicarbonate: PM, others

Safer 3 in 1 – K salts: PM Black spot, leaf spots, rusts for seed, transplants or established plants

  • Sodium Bicarbonate ?
antibiotics
Antibiotics
  • Streptomycin sulfate – many brands for agricultural use to control bacteria, fireblight

FertilomeFireblight spray : also for bacterial wilt, stem rot, leaf spots and crown gall

  • Tetracycline - fireblight
antagonists competitors
Antagonists/ Competitors
  • Trichodermaharzium is the most researched
  • Many others are being looked at
biological controls
Biological Controls
  • Bacillus subtillus

Seranade Garden Disease Control – control and suppression

  • Streptomycesgriseoviridis – Pythium, Botrytis, Fusarium, Alternaria, Phomopsis, slightly on Phytopthora, Rhizoctonia
  • Pythiumoligandrum DV 74 – hyperparasite in testing on many pathogenic fungi
nematode control
Nematode Control
  • Exclusion
  • Resistant varieties
  • Crop rotation
  • Cover crops

Grain Rye (Elbon rye) for root knot

  • Solarization
take home message
Take Home Message
  • Plan
  • Keep records
  • Scout
  • Learn disease symptoms
  • Be proactive in control