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MBS 212 Human Movement. Lecture 7 Upper limb joints Prof. Thomas K. Monsees 2008. Articulations or Joints. Articulation or Joint Place where two bones come together Structure correlated with movement Classification by function (degree of movement)

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mbs 212 human movement
MBS 212 Human Movement

Lecture 7

Upper limb joints

Prof. Thomas K. Monsees


Prof. Monsees


Articulations or Joints

  • Articulation or Joint
    • Place where two bones come together
    • Structure correlated with movement
    • Classification by function (degree of movement)
    • Classification by structure (what is ‘between’ the articulating bones)

Prof. Monsees

joints classification by function
Joints: classification by function
  • i.e., by the degree of movement possible:
    • Synarthroses
      • Joints with little or no movement
      • Skull sutures, mental symphysis, teeth in sockets, 1st costosternal joint.
    • Amphiarthroses
      • Slightly moveable joints
      • Intervertebral discs, costosternal joints, pubic symphysis
    • Diarthroses
      • Freely moveable joints
      • Shoulder, knee, hip, elbow, interphalangeal, tarsal, and carpal joints

Prof. Monsees

classes of joints
Classes of Joints
  • Structural: Based on major connective tissue type that binds bones
    • (Bone)
    • Fibrous
    • Cartilaginous
    • Synovial
  • Functional: Based on degree of motion
    • Synarthrosis: Nonmovable
    • Amphiarthrosis: Slightly movable
    • Diarthrosis: Freely movable (e.g. synovial joints)

Prof. Monsees

synovial joints
Synovial joints
  • Most joints of the appendicular skeleton are synovial joints, reflecting the far greater mobility, compared with that of the axial skeleton

Major synovial joints:

  • Shoulder, hip, elbow, knee, carpal, interphalangeal

Prof. Monsees

synovial joints6
Synovial joints
  • Articular cartilage on ends of bones
  • Bones separated by a joint cavity
  • Lubricated by synovial fluid secreted by synovial membrane
  • Enclosed in a fibrous joint capsule which holds bones together while permitting flexibility

Prof. Monsees

additional synovial structures
Additional Synovial Structures
  • Articular disks: flat plate of cartilage located between articular cartilages of the bones; circumference is attached to fibrous capsule
  • Meniscus: incomplete, crescent-shaped fibrocartilage pad
  • Bursa: are basically bags of lubricant - fibrous membrane bags filled with synovial fluid. Bursitis: inflammation of bursa, may cause considerable pain around joint thus restricting movement
  • Tendon sheaths: some bursae extend along tendons
  • Accessory ligaments: Contribute to strength and stability of the joint while limiting movement - intrinsic lig are localized localized thickenings of the joint capsule. - - extrinsic lig are sepaerate from the joint capsule and may be located either inside or outside the fibrous capsule.

Prof. Monsees

structural classification of synovial joints
Structural classification of synovial joints
  • Synovial joints are described as gliding, pivot, saddle etc on the basis of the shape of the articulating surfaces
  • Each type of joint permits a different type and range of motion

Prof. Monsees


Atlas & Axis


Prof. Monsees


Ball & Socket

types of synovial joints
Types of Synovial Joints
  • Plane joints (gliding)
    • Articular surfaces are flat and allow short slipping or gliding movements.
    • Slight nonaxial or multiaxial
    • Intercarpal and intertarsal joints
  • Saddle joints
    • Each articular surface has convex and concave areas. Each articular surface is saddle-shaped.
    • biaxial
    • Carpometacarpal joints of the thumbs.

Prof. Monsees

coracoclavicular joint
Coracoclavicular joint
  • Coracoid process of scapula + clavicle
  • Extremely powerful
  • 2 Parts
    • Conoid + trapezoid
  • Restrain opposite movements of scapula with respect to clavicle

Prof. Monsees


a) Lat view glenoid fossa, head humerus removed



b) Transverse humeral lig

Prof. Monsees

radio ulnar articulations
Radio - Ulnar Articulations
  • As well as articulating independently with humerus at the elbow joint, radius and ulna also articulate with each other by 3 joints:
  • Proximal + distal ends by synovial joints superior + inferior radioulnar joints
  • Interosseous membrane as syndesmosis along their shafts (intermediate joint)

Prof. Monsees

radio ulnar joints
Radio – ulnar joints



Head of Radius

sup radioulnarj

superior = proximal radioulnar j

Inferior = distal



Interosseous M

Head of Ulna

Radial notch ulna

inf radioulnar j

Articular disc

sup radioulnarj

Prof. Monsees

hand joints
Hand joints
  • Wrist
  • Carpal
  • Carpo metacarpal
  • Metacarpal phalangeal
  • Interphalangeal

Prof. Monsees

hand joints19
Hand joints



Prof. Monsees

wrist joints
Wrist joints



Prof. Monsees

wrist joints cont
Wrist joints (cont…)

Metacarpal thumb


Prof. Monsees

wrist joints cont22
Wrist joints (cont…)



Prof. Monsees

shoulder joint
Shoulder Joint

Prof. Monsees

movements of arm at shoulder joint
Movements of arm at shoulder joint
  • Abduction
  • Adduction
  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Medial rotation
  • Lateral rotation
  • Circulation

Prof. Monsees

m supraspinatus
M. supraspinatus
  • Origin
    • supraspinous fossa of scapula
  • Insertion
    • greater tubercle of humerus
  • Innervation
    • Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)
  • Action
    • Rotator cuff
    • Initiation of abduction of arm to 15, than deltoid takes over



Prof. Monsees

m deltoideus cont
M. Deltoideus (cont…)
  • Action
    • Major abductor of arm, abducts beyond initial 15 done by supraspinatus
    • Ant pt flexion + med rotation
    • post pt extension + lat rotation

Prof. Monsees

axes of movement at shoulder joint
Axes of movement at shoulder joint



With respect to cardinal axis of body

With respect to plane of glenoid fossa

Prof. Monsees

muscles which bind humerus to shoulder girdle
Muscles which bind humerus to shoulder girdle
  • M. teres major
  • M. deltoideus
  • Rotator cuff muscles
      • M. Supraspinatus
      • M. Infraspinatus
      • M. Teres minor
      • M. Subscapularis

Prof. Monsees

stability of shoulder joint action of rotator cuff muscles
Stability of shoulder joint: action of rotator cuff muscles
  • Rotator cuff muscles attach very close to should joint
  • + fuse w lat pt capsule act as ligaments prevent lax capsule from being trapped between artic bones

Prof. Monsees

elbow joint
Elbow joint

Prof. Monsees

elbow joint33

Synovial membrane (ant)

Elbow Joint

Capsule + ligaments

Prof. Monsees

elbow joint35
Elbow Joint
  • Arteriel blood supply derived from extensive anastomosis around the elbow involving brachial artery + its terminal branches:
  • Sup + inf ulnar collatetral branches of brachial artery
  • Rad + middle collateral of profunda brachii artery
  • Venous drainage, by vessels accompanying above arteries, is into radial, ulnar + brachial veins

Prof. Monsees