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MBS 212 Human Movement. Lecture 7 Upper limb joints Prof. Thomas K. Monsees 2008. Articulations or Joints. Articulation or Joint Place where two bones come together Structure correlated with movement Classification by function (degree of movement)

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Mbs 212 human movement
MBS 212 Human Movement

Lecture 7

Upper limb joints

Prof. Thomas K. Monsees

2008

Prof. Monsees


Mbs 212 human movement

Articulations or Joints

  • Articulation or Joint

    • Place where two bones come together

    • Structure correlated with movement

    • Classification by function (degree of movement)

    • Classification by structure (what is ‘between’ the articulating bones)

Prof. Monsees


Joints classification by function
Joints: classification by function

  • i.e., by the degree of movement possible:

    • Synarthroses

      • Joints with little or no movement

      • Skull sutures, mental symphysis, teeth in sockets, 1st costosternal joint.

    • Amphiarthroses

      • Slightly moveable joints

      • Intervertebral discs, costosternal joints, pubic symphysis

    • Diarthroses

      • Freely moveable joints

      • Shoulder, knee, hip, elbow, interphalangeal, tarsal, and carpal joints

Prof. Monsees


Classes of joints
Classes of Joints

  • Structural: Based on major connective tissue type that binds bones

    • (Bone)

    • Fibrous

    • Cartilaginous

    • Synovial

  • Functional: Based on degree of motion

    • Synarthrosis: Nonmovable

    • Amphiarthrosis: Slightly movable

    • Diarthrosis: Freely movable (e.g. synovial joints)

Prof. Monsees


Synovial joints
Synovial joints

  • Most joints of the appendicular skeleton are synovial joints, reflecting the far greater mobility, compared with that of the axial skeleton

    Major synovial joints:

  • Shoulder, hip, elbow, knee, carpal, interphalangeal

Prof. Monsees


Synovial joints1
Synovial joints

  • Articular cartilage on ends of bones

  • Bones separated by a joint cavity

  • Lubricated by synovial fluid secreted by synovial membrane

  • Enclosed in a fibrous joint capsule which holds bones together while permitting flexibility

Prof. Monsees


Additional synovial structures
Additional Synovial Structures

  • Articular disks: flat plate of cartilage located between articular cartilages of the bones; circumference is attached to fibrous capsule

  • Meniscus: incomplete, crescent-shaped fibrocartilage pad

  • Bursa: are basically bags of lubricant - fibrous membrane bags filled with synovial fluid. Bursitis: inflammation of bursa, may cause considerable pain around joint thus restricting movement

  • Tendon sheaths: some bursae extend along tendons

  • Accessory ligaments: Contribute to strength and stability of the joint while limiting movement - intrinsic lig are localized localized thickenings of the joint capsule. - - extrinsic lig are sepaerate from the joint capsule and may be located either inside or outside the fibrous capsule.

Prof. Monsees


Structural classification of synovial joints
Structural classification of synovial joints

  • Synovial joints are described as gliding, pivot, saddle etc on the basis of the shape of the articulating surfaces

  • Each type of joint permits a different type and range of motion

Prof. Monsees


Mbs 212 human movement

Atlas & Axis

Radiocarpal

Prof. Monsees

Hinge

Ball & Socket


Types of synovial joints
Types of Synovial Joints

  • Plane joints (gliding)

    • Articular surfaces are flat and allow short slipping or gliding movements.

    • Slight nonaxial or multiaxial

    • Intercarpal and intertarsal joints

  • Saddle joints

    • Each articular surface has convex and concave areas. Each articular surface is saddle-shaped.

    • biaxial

    • Carpometacarpal joints of the thumbs.

Prof. Monsees


Sternoclavicular joint
Sternoclavicular joint

Prof. Monsees



Coracoclavicular joint
Coracoclavicular joint

  • Coracoid process of scapula + clavicle

  • Extremely powerful

  • 2 Parts

    • Conoid + trapezoid

  • Restrain opposite movements of scapula with respect to clavicle

Prof. Monsees


Mbs 212 human movement

a) Lat view glenoid fossa, head humerus removed

coracoclavicular

acromioclavicular

b) Transverse humeral lig

Prof. Monsees


Radio ulnar articulations
Radio - Ulnar Articulations

  • As well as articulating independently with humerus at the elbow joint, radius and ulna also articulate with each other by 3 joints:

  • Proximal + distal ends by synovial joints superior + inferior radioulnar joints

  • Interosseous membrane as syndesmosis along their shafts (intermediate joint)

Prof. Monsees


Radio ulnar joints
Radio – ulnar joints

Trochlea

Capitulum

Head of Radius

sup radioulnarj

superior = proximal radioulnar j

Inferior = distal

Radius

Ulna

Interosseous M

Head of Ulna

Radial notch ulna

inf radioulnar j

Articular disc

sup radioulnarj

Prof. Monsees



Hand joints
Hand joints

  • Wrist

  • Carpal

  • Carpo metacarpal

  • Metacarpal phalangeal

  • Interphalangeal

Prof. Monsees


Hand joints1
Hand joints

Radiograph

MRT

Prof. Monsees


Wrist joints
Wrist joints

Midcarpal

Radiocarpal

Prof. Monsees


Wrist joints cont
Wrist joints (cont…)

Metacarpal thumb

Carpometacarpal

Prof. Monsees


Wrist joints cont1
Wrist joints (cont…)

Interphalangeal

Metacarpophalangeal

Prof. Monsees


Shoulder joint
Shoulder Joint

Prof. Monsees


Movements of arm at shoulder joint
Movements of arm at shoulder joint

  • Abduction

  • Adduction

  • Flexion

  • Extension

  • Medial rotation

  • Lateral rotation

  • Circulation

Prof. Monsees


M supraspinatus
M. supraspinatus

  • Origin

    • supraspinous fossa of scapula

  • Insertion

    • greater tubercle of humerus

  • Innervation

    • Suprascapular nerve (C5, C6)

  • Action

    • Rotator cuff

    • Initiation of abduction of arm to 15, than deltoid takes over

posterior

superior

Prof. Monsees


M deltoideus cont
M. Deltoideus (cont…)

  • Action

    • Major abductor of arm, abducts beyond initial 15 done by supraspinatus

    • Ant pt flexion + med rotation

    • post pt extension + lat rotation

Prof. Monsees


Axes of movement at shoulder joint
Axes of movement at shoulder joint

Scapula

Humerus

With respect to cardinal axis of body

With respect to plane of glenoid fossa

Prof. Monsees




Muscles which bind humerus to shoulder girdle
Muscles which bind humerus to shoulder girdle

  • M. teres major

  • M. deltoideus

  • Rotator cuff muscles

    • M. Supraspinatus

    • M. Infraspinatus

    • M. Teres minor

    • M. Subscapularis

Prof. Monsees


Stability of shoulder joint action of rotator cuff muscles
Stability of shoulder joint: action of rotator cuff muscles

  • Rotator cuff muscles attach very close to should joint

  • + fuse w lat pt capsule act as ligaments prevent lax capsule from being trapped between artic bones

Prof. Monsees


Elbow joint
Elbow joint

Prof. Monsees


Elbow joint1

Synovial membrane (ant)

Elbow Joint

Capsule + ligaments

Prof. Monsees



Elbow joint2
Elbow Joint

  • Arteriel blood supply derived from extensive anastomosis around the elbow involving brachial artery + its terminal branches:

  • Sup + inf ulnar collatetral branches of brachial artery

  • Rad + middle collateral of profunda brachii artery

  • Venous drainage, by vessels accompanying above arteries, is into radial, ulnar + brachial veins

Prof. Monsees