Quick Quiz (In back of book) What is the enzyme that breaks down fats called? What does protease enzyme break proteins down into? What are the 2 roles of bile? What is the optimum pH for enzymes in the stomach to work at? What is the role of the small intestine in digestion?.
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Enzymes in Industry
Proteases are used to pre-digest some of the protein in the food.
Now the babies digestive system can cope with it better and they can get the amino acids they need from food
Starch is very cheap as it is made by plants like Corn. Therefore using enzymes to convert plant starch into sweet sugar is a cheap source of sweetness
It is also used for the process of making fuel from plants
Glucose syrup is then converted into fructose syrup by Isomerase's enzyme
Glucose and fructose contain exactly the same amount of energy but fructose is much sweeter therefore much smaller amounts of it are needed to make food taste sweet so is a good diet choice.
Isomerase used in diet industry
In the past, people boiled and scrubbed clothes to get them clean
Now…use biological detergents
Contain proteases and lipases
Break down grime, sweat etc
Work at quite low temperatures
What would happen if the enzymes were boiled?
Why are they more environmentally friendly?
High temperatures and pressures often needed for chemical reactions. Enzymes lower this as speed up reactions at quite low temperatures and pressures
Enzymes are sensitive to surroundings. If you change the pH or temp, they may not work. It costs money to control conditions
Washing powders-biological detergents
Making sugar syrup
Making diet foods
Making chocolates with soft fillings
Catalyze or speed up reactions
Allow reactions to occur at the same rate at lower temperatures
Less energy is used to run the industrial plant
Less warm waste materials
Prevents the enzymes being denatured by the higher temperatures
Cannot wash at high temperatures, HIGH COST