STEP 1- The body is brought to the “ibu” – place of purification.
STEP 2– The body is washed with palm wine and rinsed with water from the Nile River.
STEP 3– Many internal organs (not the heart) are removed from the body and packed in natron so they will dry out.
STEP 4 - A long hook is used to smash the brain and pull it out through the nose.
STEP 5- The body is now covered and stuffed with natron which will dry it out. All of the fluids, and rags from the embalming process will be saved and buried along with the body.
CHECKYOURSELF • WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE PLACE WHERE THE BODY WAS TAKEN TO BE PREPARED? • WHICH ORGAN IS NOT TAKEN OUT OF THE BODY? WHY?
STEP 6- After forty days the body is washed again with water from the Nile. Then it is covered with oils to help the skin stay elastic.
STEP 7 - The dehydrated internal organs are wrapped in linen and returned to the body. The body is stuffed with dry materials such as sawdust, leaves and linen so that it looks lifelike.
STEP 8 - The body is covered again with good-smelling oils. It is now ready to be wrapped in linen, and to become a… MUMMY!!!!!
In the past, when the internal organs were removed from a body they were placed in hollow canopic jars. Eventually, embalmers began returning internal organs back to bodies after the organs had been dried in natron. However, solid wood or stone canopic jars were still buried with the mummy to symbolically protect the internal organs.
STEP 8 Then the fingers and the toes are individually wrapped. First the head and neck are wrapped with strips of fine linen.
STEP 9 The arms and legs are wrapped separately. Between the layers of wrapping, the embalmers place amulets to protect the body in its journey through the underworld.
STEP 10- A priest reads spells out loud while the mummy is being wrapped. These spells will help ward off evil spirits and help the deceased make the journey to the afterlife.
CHECKYOURSELF • WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE JARS THAT THE ORGANS ARE PUT IN? • WHY ARE AMULETS PLACED INSIDE OF THE WRAPPINGS?
STEP 11 A papyrus scroll with spells from the Book of the Dead is placed between the wrapped hands. The arms and legs are tied together.
STEP 12 A cloth is wrapped around the body and a picture of the god Osiris is painted on its surface.
STEP 13 A large cloth is wrapped around the entire mummy. A board of painted wood is placed on top of the mummy before the mummy is lowered into its coffin.
Finally, the body and its coffins are placed inside a large stone sarcophagus in the tomb. Furniture, clothing, valuable objects, food and drink are arranged in the tomb for the deceased. STEP 14 - A ritual called the 'Opening of the Mouth' is performed, allowing the deceased to eat and drink again.