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February 24, 2012 PowerPoint Presentation
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February 24, 2012

February 24, 2012

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February 24, 2012

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Presentation Transcript

  1. February 24, 2012 U.S. History

  2. 10-4: From Confederation to Constitution • Meeting called May 1787 to strengthen national government • “for the sole and express purpose of revising the Articles of Confederation”

  3. Shay’s Rebellion • Daniel Shays led a group of farmers in a rebellion against the government • Government under the AoC had not been strong enough to prevent it or respond to it • Sign they needed a stronger national government

  4. The Constitutional Convention • Philadelphia • May 1787 • All states sent delegates except Rhode Island • 74 delegates, only 55 attended sessions • George Washington was the best known and most respected delegate • Benjamin Franklin was the oldest delegate (82)

  5. Getting Started • Delegates held meetings in secret so they could openly share their views • Met 7 hours a day for 5-6 days a week • James Madison took notes on everything they discussed, debated, and decided

  6. The Task Defined • Madison proposed the Virginia Plan • Bicameral legislature • Executive • National judiciary • New Jersey Plan • Unicameral legislature • No executive or judiciary • Increased power to legislature

  7. The Great Compromise • How would states be represented – proportionally or equally? • Compromise – bicameral legislature • Upper house – equal representation • Lower house – proportional representation

  8. The Three-Fifths Compromise • Southern states wanted to count slaves as part of their population • Compromise – 3 out of 5 slaves would be counted toward population • Tied to a clause that allowed Congress to end the slave trade in 20 years

  9. Separation by Function • Power divided among three parts of the government • Legislative (pass laws) • Executive (enforce laws) • Judiciary (conduct trials, judge laws) • Powers of the branches were limited and balanced

  10. The Parts of the Government • Executive – President • Elected to a 4 year term • Elected using the Electoral College • Legislative – Congress • Bicameral – Senate and House of Representatives • Senators elected to 6 year terms by state legislatures • Representatives elected to 2 year terms by the people of the state • Judiciary – Courts • Judges appointed for life

  11. The States and the Nation • Created a federation – divided power between a central, federal government and the states • Constitution was made “the supreme law of the land”

  12. The Amending Process • Changes in the Constitution might be necessary over time • Process for amending Constitution was spelled out • Changes can be proposed and must be ratified by ¾ of the state legislatures or by the people of ¾ of the states

  13. 10-5: Ratifying the Constitution • Nine states had to ratify the Constitution for it to go into effect

  14. Federalists and Anti-Federalists • Federalists supported the Constitution • Anti-Federalists opposed the Constitution

  15. The State Conventions • Some states took longer to ratify the Constitution • James Madison, John Jay, and Alexander Hamilton wrote 85 essays in defense of the Constitution called The Federalist Papers • Nine states ratified it by July 1788, putting it into effect • It took several years, but eventually all 13 states ratified the Constitution

  16. Toward a Bill of Rights • Anti-Federalists believed the Constitution should list the rights of the people • The first Congress approved ten amendments to the Constitution known as the Bill of Rights