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definition of reproductive health from icpd 1994
Definition of reproductive health (from ICPD, 1994)

“Reproductive health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes. Reproductive health therefore implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so.

…[It] is the constellation of methods, techniques and services that contribute to reproductive health and well-being by preventing and solving reproductive health problems. It also includes sexual health, the purpose of which is the enhancement of life and personal relations, and not merely counseling and care related to reproduction and sexually transmitted diseases.”

Note: ICPD= International Conference on Population

and Development, Cairo, 1994

P. Tavrow, 2005

standard elements of reproductive health
Standard elements of reproductive health
  • Family planning services, counseling, information and education
  • Prenatal, safe delivery, postnatal care
  • Prevention and treatment of infertility
  • Abortion care, post-abortion care
  • Prevention and treatment of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs, including. HIV/AIDS)
  • Counseling on sexuality and treatment of sexual dysfunction
  • Treatment of cancers of the reproductive system
  • Discouragement of female genital mutilation
  • Prevention of gender-related violence and effective counseling/treatment
  • Special attention to certain populations at higher risk or need, such as adolescents, refugees or displaced people, disabled, commercial sex workers

P. Tavrow, 2005

reproductive health global challenges today
Reproductive health: global challenges today
  • 20-40% of births are unwanted or mistimed
  • 150 million couples have unmet need for family planning
  • 50 million abortions per year; 20 million are unsafe
  • 600,000 women die of pregnancy-related causes (99% in developing countries)
  • 333 million new cases of curable STDS every year
  • 40 million people are infected with HIV/AIDS; 20 million have died
  • 130 million girls and women have undergone female genital mutilation; 2 million are at risk every year
  • Nearly 1 in 3 women report forced or coerced sex
  • Nearly 1 in 4 women report sexual violence by intimate partner

P. Tavrow, 2005