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Ch. 13 Rise of a Mass Democracy. 1824-1840. The “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824. Look at Pg. 274 in American Pageant Election of 1824Jackson failed to win a majority of the electoral votes Deadlock: House of Reps decides among top three candidates.

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the corrupt bargain of 1824
The “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824
  • Look at Pg. 274 in American Pageant
  • Election of 1824Jackson failed to win a majority of the electoral votes
  • Deadlock: House of Reps decides among top three candidates.
  • Henry Clay has the most in common with John Quincy Adams: both nationalistsand both support the American System.
  • Clay influences many congressman and Adams was elected president.
  • Henry Clay becomes the new Secretary of State
  • Jackson supporters accuse Adams of bribing Clay with the position.
yankee in the white house
Yankee in the White House
  • John Quincy Adams
  • He ranked as one of the most successful secretaries of state and one of the least successful presidents.
  • Supported a strong national government while the majority of people were starting to support more states’ rights.

“Posterity: you will never know how much it has cost my generation to preserve your freedom. I hope you will make good use of it.”

adams first state of the union speech
Adams: First State of the Union Speech
  • Urged Congress to construct roads and canals.
  • Proposed a national university.
  • Advocated federal support for an astronomical observatory.

Southern States have a strong reaction…

  • Construction of roads/canals by federal govt. would mean that the tariff duties would continue.
  • If federal government meddles in education and roads they might meddle with their “peculiar institution”.
  • White Georgians want the Cherokees kicked out!
  • Adams wants the Indians to be dealt with fairly.
election of 1828 republicans split into two camps
Election of 1828Republicans split into two camps
  • National Republicans Adams
  • Support for strong central government
  • Similar to Hamiltonian’s
  • Democratic-Republicans Jackson
  • Support for states’ rights
  • Similar to Jeffersonian’s
turn talk
Turn & Talk
  • Take 30 seconds to glance back through your notes.
  • Make one connection to the current state of politics or government today and be prepared to share out.
why did jackson win
Why did Jackson win?
  • Jackson presented as a reformer, hero, and frontiersman
  • Jackson was really a wealthy planter, owned many slaves
  • Look at pg. 276 in American Pageant
  • Jackson’s strongest support came from West and South, Adams won New England
  • Jackson 178 electoral votes, and 83 electoral votes for Adams
andrew jackson
Andrew Jackson
  • Born in the Carolinas
  • Orphaned early
  • Moved west to Tennessee
  • Became a judge and member of Congress
  • First president from the West
  • He had risen from the masses but he was not one of them

“Old Hickory”

“I've got big shoes to fill. This is my chance to do something. I have to seize the moment.”

spoils system
Spoils System
  • Democrats suspicious of the federal government.
  • spoils system: rewarding political supporters with public office, introduced into the federal government on a large scale. (make flashcard)
  • Jackson defended this practice as democratic
  • His reasons…

-Routine of office thought to be simple

enough for any upstanding American

to learn quickly. Want to get rid of

aristocratic office holding class and bring

in new blood.

  • Scandal…men who bought their posts through campaign contributions were appointed to high offices
the tariff of abominations
The “Tariff of Abominations”
  • Tariffs protected American industry against competition from European manufactured goods. People more likely to “buy American”


  • They drove prices for all Americans
  • AND…Retaliatory tariffs abroad on agricultural exports from America.

Southerners Feelings…

  • Very little manufacturing of their own…have to buy products elsewhere. HATE the tariffs.
  • Tariff of 1828 “Black Tariff”: Formal protests, South Carolina lower flags to half-mast.
yankee tariff
“Yankee Tariff”
  • Southerners sell cotton on the world market
  • World Market unprotected by tariffs…American cotton struggles to have competitive prices.
  • Southerners forced to buy their manufactured goods in an American market protected by tariffs, more expensive for them to “buy American”
  • Also: Growing anxiety that the federal government will interfere with slavery.
john c calhoun
John C. Calhoun
  • Originally a strong nationalist…becomes one of the most outspoken sectionalists in defense of the South and slavery.
  • Foremost nullifier: if the federal government oversteps their power a state may nullify the law.
  • Suggested a dual presidency: one president for the South and one for the North.
  • Protested against the “Tariff of Abominations” unjust and unconstitutional.

“Beware the wrath of a patient adversary.”

“The Government of the absolute majority instead of the Government of the people is but the Government of the strongest interests; and when not efficiently checked, it is the most tyrannical and oppressive that can be devised.”

nullification crisis
Nullification Crisis
  • Tariff of 1832, seen as a little better than previous tariff BUT fell short of Southern demands.
  • South Carolina takes drastic action. 2/3 of state legislature declare the tariff null and void within South Carolina. Also threatened to take SC out of the Union if the federal govt. tried to forcibly collect.
  • The president will NOT permit defiance or disunion! Jackson privately threatens to invade state and have nullifiers hanged. Dispatches naval and military reinforcements to SC.
crisis averted henry clay influences a compromise
Crisis Averted: Henry Clay influences a compromise
  • Compromise Tariff of 1833
    • gradually reduce tariffs about 10% over eight years.
  • Congress also passes the Force Bill (also called the “Bloody Bill” in SC):authorized the president to use the military to forcibly collect federal tariff duties.
  • Armed conflict avoided
jackson s war w the bank
Jackson’s War w/The Bank
  • Jackson distrusts big business and monopolistic banking, especially the Bank of the United States.
    • National government minted gold and silver but DID NOT issue paper money.
  • Paper notes were printed by private banks but their value fluctuated depending on the amount printed and the health of the bank (how much actual gold/silver they have)
    • Gave private bankers power over the nation’s economy.
jackson s war w the bank1
Jackson’s War w/The Bank
  • U.S. government controlled the nation’s gold and silver, it’s paper notes had a stable value. The bank provided credit and stability.
    • technically privately owned though, by the rich investors who actually own the gold/silver and let the US Government ‘borrow it”)
  • Bank of the United States acted like a branch of the government.
bank war 1832
Bank War 1832
  • Henry Clay pushes through a bill four years early to renew the Bank of the United States Bank hoping that it will cause Jackson to lose the upcoming election.
  • If Jackson signs the bill and renews the bank, his western followers will be mad! If he vetoes the bill, Clay assumes he will lose wealthy influential groups in the East.
  • Jackson not only vetoes the bank but he declares it unconstitutional! The Supreme Court had already established the constitutionality of the bank in the case of McCulloch v. Maryland …is the executive superior to the judiciary?
election of 1832
Election of 1832


wins by a


Electoral Votes


Clay: 49

Henry Clay

-ample funds

-backed by the Bank

Anti-Masonic Party

-opposed the Masonic order