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The Rise of Mass Democracy
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  1. The Rise of Mass Democracy

  2. John Quincy Adams Henry Clay William H Crawford Andrew Jackson All are republicans AJ overwhelmingly wins in the West,while dominating the popular vote, doesn’t have enough electoral college votes. Why? But first… The Corrupt Bargain of 1824

  3. 12th amendment says vote for top 3 candidates is left to HOR. Henry Clay is out, yet he is speaker of the house, thus presides over HOR vote. Clay likes JQA the best, for his support of American System and nationalism Clay gets the HOR to vote for JQA, in return JQA makes Clay Sec. of State. Corrupt Bargain of 1824

  4. Jackson calls Clay “Judas of the West” Symbolizes the end of politics behind closed doors. Why does the Corrupt Bargain contradict republican principles? Reactions to the Corrupt Bargain

  5. 1st minority president Less than 33% of the popular vote Doesn’t get rid of Fed’s in government positions Huge nationalists, while sectionalism is growing John Quincy Adams

  6. Urges for more roads and canals Federal support of astronomical observatory Why the South hates JQA 1. Federal projects means more tariffs 2. If fed govt. can be involved in public affairs like roads and education, what will stop it from getting involved with slavery 3. West hates him too- restricts land grabbing, sides with Cherokees in Georgia JQA

  7. Era of Good Feelings is over National Republicans = JQA Democratic Republicans = Andrew Jackson DR- present Jackson as a War Hero, common man DR- call JQA an aristocrat The Election of 1828

  8. Nat Reps on AJ Mother is a prostitute Wife is an adulterer Bring up dueling past Killed 6 men for mutiny Demo. Reps on JQA Put billiard table and chess table in White House Received (earned) large amounts of money from Federal government Pimped out servant girl to Russian tsar Mudsling of the 1828 Election

  9. Messenger during the AR Self Educated Famous dueler Man of the people But…owns slaves, lots of land, and one of best Mansion in Tenn. Old Hickory as President

  10. Inaugural “brawl” at the white house Critics view King Mob Vulgarity had replaced Jeffersonian simplicity Old Hickory as President

  11. Spoils system- rewarding political supporters with public office (already in NY and Penn) Democrats claim it is to get rid of older blood- “each generation deserved its turn at the public trough” Hypocrisy any one?

  12. Public positions given to morons and cheats Samuel Swartwout Cements political loyalty- people are now more likely to pick one party and stick with it. Impact of Spoils System

  13. The good- protects American industry The bad- keeps prices high and other nations tend to impose retaliatory tariffs Tariff of Abominations or Tariff of 1828 Tariffs

  14. NE- supports tariff, makes their industries and manufacturing more profitable The south (mainly old south)- cotton is sold mainly in world markets, but are “forced” to by goods made by NE Tariff of 1828 (Yankee Tariff)

  15. Terrified about government interfering with slavery Why Miss Compromise Denmark Vessey Haitian Revolution England moving towards abolition (west Indies) South sees the tariff issue as the time to take a stand on federal government’s encroachment on states’ rights Pressures on the South

  16. John C Calhoun The South Carolina Exposition and Protest Written anonymously (JCC is the vice president) Building on Vir. Ken. Resolutions States should nullify and void tariff within their boundaries South’s Response to Tariff of Abominations

  17. In SC legislature Nullies (those for nullification) try to get 2/3 vote Minority unionists kept it from passing Tariff of 1832- reduced levels, but still did not meet south’s standards. Election of 1832- Nullies get majority, nullified the tariff, threatened to leave union if Fed. Govt. tries to stop them Nullification Crisis

  18. AJ- not hardcore supporter of tariff, but hates defiance Threatens to invade SC, hang all nullies Prepares naval and military for SC AJ and the Nullification Crisis

  19. Proposed by Henry Clay Gradual reduction of tariffs, 10% over 8 years Passes, vote is sectional Compromise Tariff of 1833

  20. Known as “bloody bill” in SC President can use army and navy, to collect federal tariff duties SC then nullifies the force bill The Force Bill

  21. 1. No southern states supported SC (GE and Vir thought about it) 2.Unionist in SC building up militias Thus facing invasion from outside and civil war Henry Clay is hero of the time in both N and S Why no Civil War?

  22. People want westward expansion, but natives are there 1790’s Fed government recognizes Natives as sovereign nations Make treaties, but often break them. Many have respect for natives, believe than can assimilate Examples of assimilation Society for Propagating the Gospel Among Indians (1787) 1793- Congress allots 20,000 dollars to promote literacy, agricultural, and vocational instruction among the Natives Many natives resist, but some try to assimilate Native American

  23. Cherokees in Georgia Accept agriculture and ideas of private property Develop alphabet 1808 legal code 1827 establish 3 branch government like ours Even had slaves Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles = “Five Civilized Tribes” Most Assimilated Tribe

  24. Not white enough for Georgia GE legislative branch declares Natives tribal council illegal Cherokee’s appeal to supreme court and win AJ’s response “John Marshall has made his decision, not let him enforce it” Most Assimilated Tribe

  25. Remove all tribes east of Miss. River, to west of Miss River 5 Tribes hit the worst Trail of Tears- forced Natives to march to permanent Indian Territory (Oklahoma) 1836- Bureau of Indian Affairs is created Indian Removal Act 1830

  26. Black Hawk War- Ill and Wisconsin- defeated by US army, Jefferson Davis served Seminoles and runaway slaves fight guerilla warfare for 7 years in Florida. Resistance to the Trail of Tears

  27. AJ hates banks and big business “Moneyed monster” = Bank of US National Bank minted gold and silver coins Most paper money printed by private banks Money fluctuated on health of banks and money printed Bank of US- controls most of nation’s gold and silver- paper money is stable Problem: bank ran by private (elite) investors, Nicholas Biddle = bank president The Bank War 1832

  28. Henry Clay, Daniel Webster – want to re charter bank (set to expire in 1836) Clay wants to make it an issue for next presidential election Clay’s idea- if AJ signs charter, will lose votes in the west, if he vetoes it AJ will lose support of wealthy east The Bank War 1832

  29. AJ vetoes charter “The Bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it” Declares bank unconstitutional, violates which court case? Makes position of president much more powerful Makes executive branch senior partner in relationship to legislative branch May have lost some votes from wealthy east, but common people embrace it The Bank War 1832

  30. 1.1st time a third party entered the field Anti Masonic Party- against Masonic Order Strongest in NY, also strong in mid Atlantic and NE 2. National conventions to nominate candidates 3.Formal platforms- publicizing their stance on issues Unique Election of 1832

  31. Bank set to expire in 1836 1833- AJ makes sure banks dies. Method- removing federal deposits from bank, use the deposits on day to day operations AJ has to reshuffle cabinet twice before he can find a Sec. of Treasury who will follow his idea Biddle retracts loans trying to cause a financial panic (Biddle’s Panic) Burying Biddle’s Bank

  32. Surplus funs place in state banks ( pro AJ) called pet banks Pet banks are rudimentary and flood country with paper money Wildcat, or pet bank money becomes worthless AJ- “Specie Circular”- all public lands must be purchased with hard or metallic money- kills speculation- helps cause the cash in 1873 Burying Biddle’s Bank

  33. AJ’s Democratic Republicans become democrats 1828 Hatred for AJ forms Whig Party Made up of groups alienated by AJ Groups = Supporters of American system, South States angry by AJ’s stance on nullification, N. merchants and industries, Evangelical Protests associated with Anti Masonic Party Lead by HC and Daniel Webster Support Internal improvements Not wealthy- But Democrats try to say there are Whigs now seen as representing “common man” Birth of the Whigs

  34. AJ too old to run (70)- hand picks Martin Van Buren Whigs- no single candidate, instead try to run several candidates in hopes of stopping any one candidate getting majority of electoral college The Election of 1836

  35. 1st president born in US Martin Van Ruin Democrats don’t like him 1.AJ hand picked him 2. Not as stubborn as strong as AJ Texas is an issue AJ basically hands him society on verge of depression Martin Van Buren (Little Magician)

  36. Causes Over speculation in west, using currency from Wild Cat Banks Bank War Crop failures Banks collapse Public land sales fall off Unemployment is common Panic of 1837

  37. Whigs want to get government involved to help- expansion of bank credit, high tariffs, subsidies for internal improvements MVB, like Andrew Jackson, believes government should not touch economy Panic of 1837

  38. MVB and the Divorce Bill Divorce the Bank and Government altogether Establish independent treasuries, hold the money, banks have no access to it, thus shrinking available credit resources Demos “support it” Whigs hate it Passed in 1840, repealed the next year Panic of 1837

  39. Mexico wins independence from Spain 1821 1823- Mex. Gives Stephen F Austin land tract 1. Bring 300 American families 2. Become Roman Catholic faith 3. Become Mexicanized, or assimilate Texas

  40. Popular saying GTT- gone to Texas 1835- 30,000 Texas Americans Famous peeps- Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie, Sam Houston Lots of quarrels between Texans and Mexicans Slavery, immigration, religion, US brings slaves, don’t listen to immigration regulations, don’t become Catholics Texas

  41. 1836 Tex Declares Independence- am Houston is commander in chief Battle of Alamo- Texans lose bravely Battle of Goliad- Texans surrender, then get slaughtered The Lone Star Rebellion

  42. Battle of San Jacinto Tex attack during a siesta, despite outnumber Tex wins Forces Santa Anna to sign treats- Mex troops must leave Tex, and Rio Grande is border The Lone Star Rebellion

  43. Tex gets many supplies from US, despite US neutrality Texas wants to be part of USPetitioned for annexation in 1837- US says no Why? Anti slavery advocates of the north fear Texas is apart of slavocracy Texas and the US

  44. Democrats- MVB Whigs- WHH Why- play up his war Hero, felt he would get most votes WHH- no official platform Log Cabin and Hard Cider Campaign Election of 1840

  45. US citizens have to choose between Whigs- expand and stimulate economy Demo- retrenchment and end banks and aggressive corporations E of 1840- Democracy is respectable, aristocracy is frowned upon Election of 1840