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Structuring Project Teams and Building Cohesiveness. Presentation by Gwen A. Little CEP 812 - 2/3/99. Characteristics of Project Teams. Definition: a team is a collection of individuals who work together to attain a goal. Project team members

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structuring project teams and building cohesiveness

Structuring Project Teams and Building Cohesiveness

Presentation by

Gwen A. Little

CEP 812 - 2/3/99

characteristics of project teams
Characteristics of Project Teams
  • Definition: a team is a collection of individuals who work together to attain a goal.
  • Project team members
    • often borrowed - brief exposure to project effort
    • work on piece of project - when done move on to other projects
    • may not recognize they are part of a team -
characteristics cont d
Characteristics cont’d.
  • Therefore incapable of developing team spirit - project commitment
team efficiency vs inefficiency
Team Efficiency vs. Inefficiency
  • Team Efficiency is defined as team performance that is actually achieved.
  • Ex: Team accomplishing a small portion of what it could - efficiency low

Team achieving as much as possible efficiency is high

what causes team inefficiency
What causes team inefficiency?
  • Matrix Based Frictions
    • projects dependent on temporarily borrowed staff
    • lack of staff continuity
    • project manager’s lack of direct control over project staff and material resources
inefficiency cont d
Inefficiency cont’d.
  • Poor communication - large amount of time spent sending and receiving messages
  • Information atherosclerosis - communication channels so clogged that important information has difficulty making it through
  • Garbled messages - messages passed along from one person to another get changed
team structure
Team Structure
  • ISOMORPHIC TEAM STRUCTURE

Iso= equal or same Morph= form or shape

Two things share the same structural appearance

  • Advantages
    • organization simple - accountability clear
    • parallel implementation of tasks
structure cont d
Structure Cont’d.
  • SPECIALTY TEAM STRUCTURE
  • Team members asked to apply their special expertise across a wide array of tasks
  • high levels of responsibility lack corresponding levels of authority
  • Deficiencies - figure 3.3 p. 94
    • accountability diffuse
    • unequal distribution of work
    • work alone work may not be well integrated
structure cont d9
Structure Cont’d.
  • Advantages
    • high degree of self management
    • expertise applied where appropriate
  • EGOLESS TEAM STRUCTURE
    • should be difficult to determine who produced what portion of the product
    • no obvious leader
    • decisions achieved through consensus
structure cont d10
Structure Cont’d.
  • Project tasks reflect input of all team members
  • Encourages high levels of interactivity and communication among project members
  • Criticisms
    • doesn’t work because people have egos
    • those with talent want to make their contribution stand out
structure cont d11
Structure cont’d.
    • Lack of leadership - team starts to drift
  • How can this work?
    • Team size must be small
    • Must work together continuously
  • SURGICAL TEAM STRUCTURE
    • All attention focuses on a single individual and his or her abilities
structure cont d12
Structure cont’d.
  • Disadvantage
    • requires superlatively capable individual to play role of the surgeon
  • Surgical team approach most effective on design projects that entail large amounts of writing
creating team identity
Creating Team Identity
  • Make the team tangible
    • effective use of meetings
      • team members see they are not working alone
    • colocation of team members
      • members work together in a common space
      • War rooms - contain the most significant project documentation
    • create a team name
building a reward system
Building a Reward System
  • Letters of commendation
  • Public recognition for good work
  • Job assignments
  • Flexible work time
  • New equipment goes to best workers
  • Recommendation for cash awards and bonuses
personal touch
Personal Touch
  • Be supportive (physical, psychological)
  • Be clear
  • Learn something about team members
  • Celebrate special occasions
  • Be accessible
    • enlist an open door policy