Reading and Learning to Read (8th ed.)Vacca, J., Vacca, R., Gove, M., Burkey, L., Lenhart, L., and McKeon C. Chapter One Knowledge and Beliefs About Reading
Between the Lines In this chapter, you will discover: • How beliefs about literacy learning influence instructional decisions and practices. • How teachers use and construct personal, professional, and practical knowledge about literacy learning. • How language, social, and psychological perspectives on reading inform knowledge and beliefs about literacy learning. • How different theoretical models of the reading process describe what humans do when they engage in reading.
Alphabetic principle Autobiographical narrative Belief system Best practice Bottom-up model Constructivism Decoding Explicit Graphophonemic cues Implicit Interactive model Literacy event Metacognition Orthographic knowledge Professional Knowledge Psycholinguistics Schemata Semantic cues Sociolinguistics Syntactic cues Top-down model Key Terms
Figure 1.2 Relationships Among Teacher Knowledge, Decisions, and Actions and Students’ Literate Activity and Attitudes toward Reading and Writing Teachers’ instructional practice and decisions Teacher knowledge Planning for instruction Students’ literate activity and conceptions and attitudes toward reading and writing Professional Assessing student performance and literate activity Practical Personal Interacting with students during instruction
Figure 1.3 What Is the Passage About? The procedure is quite simple. First, you arrange things into different groups. Of course, one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step; otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo things. That is, it is better to do few things at once than too many. In the short run, this may not seem important but complications can easily arise. A mistake can be expensive as well. At first the whole procedure will seem complicated. Soon, however, it will become just another facet of life. It is difficult to foresee any end to the necessity for this task in the immediate future, but then one can never tell. After the procedure is completed, one arranges the materials into different groups again. They can be put into their appropriate places. Eventually, they will be used once more, and the whole cycle will then have to be repeated. However, this is part of life.
Figure 1.4 Bottom-Up and Top-Down Models Meaning Meaning Top-Down Processing: The act of reading is triggered by the reader’s prior knowledge and experience in order to construct meaning. Semantic information Flow of Information Syntactic information Bottom-Up Processing: The act of reading is triggered by grapho- phonemic information such as letters, syllables, and words in order to construct meaning from print. Flow of Information Graphophonemic information Print Print
Print Figure 1.5 Information Processing in Interactive Models of Reading Meaning Information Flow Information Flow Decision Center Graphophonemic information Semantic and syntactic information Meaning Print Interactive Processing: The act of reading is triggered by the reader’s prior knowledge and experience as well as graphophonemic information in order to construct meaning.
FLAN AND GLOCK Flan was a flim. Glock was a plopper. It was unusal for a flim and a plopper to be crods, but Flan and Glock were crods. They medged together. Flan was keaded to moak at a mox. Glock wanted to kead there too. But the lear said he could not kead there. Glock anged that the lear said he could not kead there because he was a plopper.
Chapter Two Approaches to Reading Instruction
Between the Lines In this chapter, you will discover: • The relationship between comprehensive instruction and beliefs about reading. • How beliefs are connected to different theoretical models of reading. • Curricular Differences among bottom-up and top-down models of reading. • Instructional approaches in the teaching of reading. • What it means to achieve a comprehensive program.
Key Terms • Basal reading approach • Comprehensive approach • Explicit strategy instruction • Instructional scaffolding • Integrated language arts approach • Language-experience approach • Literature-based instruction • Technology-based instruction • Units of language • Whole language
Figure 2.2 Units of Written Language Whole Text Paragraphs Sentences Words Letters
Table 2.1 Defining Bottom-Up, Top-Down, and Interactive Beliefs about Reading
Table 2.1 continued Defining Bottom-Up, Top-Down, and Interactive Beliefs about Reading
Figure 2.3 The Many Instructional Approaches Teachers Draw from to Achieve a Comprehensive Program Basal Instructional approaches Language experience Literature Integrated language arts Technology
Chapter Three Meeting the Literacy Needs of Diverse Learners
Between the Lines In this chapter, you will discover: • Linguistic, cultural, cognitive, and academic factors that influence individual diverse learners. • Issues about learning to read and write in relation to definitions of literacy and diversity. • Illustrations of linguistic, dialectical, cultural, and academic and cognitive diversity in instructional situations. • Ways to plan and implement strategies to differentiate instruction, building on students’ background knowledge and experiences.
Key Terms • Academic and cognitive diversity • Additive approach • American Standard English • Book buddies • Contributions approach • Cross-age tutoring • Cultural diversity • Curriculum compacting • Decision-making and social-action approach • Dialect • Exceptional children
Key Terms • Image making • Inclusion • Inquiry learning • Instructional conversations • Limited English Proficient (LEP) • Linguistic diversity • Transformative approach
Table 3.1 Terminology Associated with Diversity
Table 3.1 continued Terminology Associated with Diversity
Table 3.1 continued Terminology Associated with Diversity
Box 3.5 KWLQ At the heart of inquiry learning is questioning, but student ability to ask questions about content is often based on prior knowledge. Furthermore, students with special needs may have difficulty asking questions. To help them with their questioning, a framework was developed using Ogle’s (1986) KWL (described in Chapter 8) and an additional Q. Based on previous personal and school experiences and connected to new experiences, students in kindergarten, second grade, and fifth grade were encouraged to question and discover through the four steps of KWLQ (Schmidt, 1999): • The students recorded their prior knowledge about a particular subject under K. This was completed in pairs with individual charts or a large class chart. • The students formulated, recorded, and reported questions, under W, in the same manner. The teachers also modeled the different ways to ask questions. • The children searched for answers through reading, interviews, field trips, video tapes, the Internet, and firsthand experiences. They recorded and reported their answers under L. The teacher anticipated specific answers based on the units of study; the students responded not only with those answers but also with information beyond what the curriculum required. • The children noted more questions for further study under Q. At the end of the unit, the unanswered questions from Q became a focus for those students who continued to be interested in finding answers and reporting them to the class. In conclusion, KWLQ provided a framework for question formulation and practice for literacy learning as the children naturally connected reading, writing, listening, and speaking for inquiry learning.
Chapter Four Early Literacy: From Birth to School
Between the Lines In this chapter, you will discover: • The continuum of children’s literacy development as they progress through various phases of learning to read and write. • How reading and writing develop in home environments that support literacy learning. • The importance of developmentally appropriate practices. • How to create literate environments. • Developmentally appropriate literacy practices emphasizing play, language experiences, and reading to children.
Key Terms • Assisted reading • Developmentally appropriate practice • Developmental stages of spelling • Dramatic play • Environmental print • Family literacy • Invented spelling • Language-experience activities • Literacy development • Literacy play center • Literate environment • Pretend play • Scribbling • Shared reading
Figure 4.1 Phases of Children’s Development in Early Reading and Writing Preschool Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade Third Grade Awareness and Exploration Experimental Early Transitional Independent and Productive
Phases of Children’s Development in Scribbling Between Ages Three and Six Before Age One After Age Six EarlyScribbling Controlled Scribbling Name Scribbling Children make random, uncontrolled marks on paper. Children begin to make systematic, repeated marks such as circles, vertical lines, dots, and squares. Children’s scribbles become representational to the child writer.
Developmental Stages of Spelling Prephonemic Spelling PhonemicSpelling Transitional Spelling ConventionalSpelling Children’s invented spellings display a one-to-one correspondence between the initial consonant or final consonant and the word. Six- or seven-year-old children begin their invented spellings. Children’s invented spellings represent chunks or patterns of letters that represent spoken sounds. By third grade, children use correct spelling more and more often in their attempts to communicate.
Box 4.3Steps of Shared Reading Consider the following steps when sharing books with early readers and writers. • Introduce, talk about, and reread a new story. • Show children the cover of the book and invite discussion of the illustration. Ask, “What does the illustration on the cover remind you of?” “What do you think this story will be about?” • Tell children the title of the story. Invite further predictions as to the story’s content. • Read the story dramatically. Once children have experienced the joy of hearing the story, invite conversation: “What did you enjoy about the story?” “Were the characters like you?” It is better not to overdo the discussion with lots of questions. Accept the children’s personal reactions and responses, and support their efforts to express their enjoyment of the story and to talk about the meaning that it had for them. • Encourage children to retell the story, in their own words. Allow them to use picture clues, and assist them as needed. • Reread the story, inviting children to participate in some way by focusing on repetitive elements, or chants, having them join in with you. Keep the emphasis on meaning and enjoyment.
Box 4.3 continuedSteps of Shared Reading • Reread familiar stories. • Once the children have become familiar with several stories, ask them to choose a favorite to be reread. • Strive for the children’s increased participation by creating read along situations. • Create book experiences to build children’s book knowledge. For example, as you read, point to the words in the text, and demonstrate skills such as page turning and directionality (e.g., left to right, top to bottom). • Teach children about book conventions (e.g., front and back cover, title and author page, pictures to support the story). • Make children aware of written language conventions (e.g., words, pages, spaces between words, the use of capital letters in proper names or at the beginning of a sentence, punctuation marks, quotation marks to indicate dialogue between characters). We will examine the development of written language and book conventions in more depth in Chapter 4. • Develop reading skills and strategies. • As children progress in the sharing and rereading of favorite stories, teach them literacy skills and strategies (e.g., recognizing letter-sound relationships in words, using context to identify words, building a sight-word vocabulary, developing oral reading fluency, comprehending meaning). These strategies and others will be examined in subsequent chapters. • Encourage independent reading. • Develop a classroom library of books that have been shared and reread many times. • Encourage students to read favorite books on their own and with others.
Box 4.4Assisted Reading Consider these stages when using assisted reading with beginners. • 1. Read to children and have them “echo” the reading. • In this initial stage of assisted reading, the teacher reads to children, and they repeat the phrases or sentences after the person doing the reading. This practice is sometimes called echo reading. Not only does echo reading encourage young children to memorize text, but it assists them to make the connection between print and speech and to develop a concept of word. • Have children anticipate words during reading. • Children enter this stage when they recognize that some of the words occur repeatedly in stories they are reading. At this point, leave out some of the words that you think children know. The children supply the missing words as they read. • 3. Have children do most of the reading. • Children enter this stage when they do most of the reading of familiar stories that have been read to them on a repeated basis. The teacher fills in the words children may not know or may have trouble recognizing. The goal is to maintain as smooth a flow of reading as possible.
Chapter 5 Literacy Instruction for Beginning Readers and Writers
Between the Lines In this chapter, you will discover: • The rationale for an emergent reading program. • The importance of storybooks in the lives of early readers and writers. • How to develop and assess linguistic knowledge, concepts of print, and literacy-related knowledge and skills. • How to develop phonemic awareness and alphabet knowledge.
Key Terms • Big books • Emergent literacy • Interactive reading • Interactive writing • Linguistic awareness • Literacy club • Observation • Phonemic awareness • Phonemic segmentation • Reading readiness • Storybook experiences • Uses of oral language
Table 5.1 Comparison of Emergent Literacy and Reading Readiness
Table 5.1 continued Comparison of Emergent Literacy and Reading Readiness
Figure 5.1 Storybook Literacy Experiences for Beginners Independent reading and writing Read-alouds and readalongs Familiar rereadings Interactive reading and writing
The Value of Language Experience Approach • Motivates children to want to read. • Personalizes instruction. • Demonstrates the connection between spoken and written language. • Demonstrates the left-to-right, top-to-bottom orientation of written English. • Demonstrates that the end of the line does not always mean the end of a thought. • Demonstrates the value of written language for preserving information, ideas, and feelings. • Teaches the meaning of word and the function of space in establishing word boundaries. • Teaches the function of capitalization and punctuation.
Table 5.3 Spellings by Three Kindergartners
Chapter Six Assessing Reading Performance Authentic Running Records assessments Kidwatching Formal assessments Anecdotal Notes
Between the Lines In this chapter, you will discover: • The reasons to use authentic assessments in making decisions about instruction. • Purposes for formal, standardized assessments. • Purposes for informal, alternative assessments. • Techniques for using miscue analysis, running records, kidwatching, anecdotal notes, checklists, and interviews. • Essential elements for implementing portfolio assessment.
Key Terms • Anecdotal notes • Authentic assessment • Checklist • Criterion-referenced tests • Diagnostic test • High-stakes testing • Informal assessment • Informal reading inventory (IRI) • Interviewing • Kidwatching • Miscue analysis • Norms • Portfolio • Reliability • Running record • Standardized reading test • Survey test • Validity
Types of Oral Reading Errors • Omission: An omission error occurs when the reader omits a unit of written language, a word, several words, parts of words or one or more sentences. • Substitution: A substitution error is noted when a real word (or words) is substituted for the word in the text. • Mispronunciation: A mispronunciation miscue is one in which the word is pronounced incorrectly. • Insertion: The insertion miscue results when a word (or words) is inserted in the passage. • Repetition: In repetition, a word or phrase is repeated. • Reversal: The reversal error occurs when the order of a word (or words) in the text is transposed. • Pronunciation: A word (or words) is pronounced for the reader.
Determining Reading Levels • Independent level:The level at which the student reads fluently with excellent comprehension. The independent level has also been called the recreational reading level because not only will students be able to function on their own, but they also often have high interest in the material. • Instructional level: The level at which the student can make progress in reading with instructional guidance. This level has been referred to as the teaching level because the material to be read must be challenging but not too difficult. • Frustration level: The level at which the student is unable to pronounce many of the words or is unable to comprehend the material satisfactorily. This is the lowest level of reading at which the reader is able to understand. The material is too difficult to provide a basis for growth. • Listening capacity level: The level at which the students can understand material that is read aloud. This level is also known as the potential level because if students were able to read fluently, they would not have a problem with comprehension.
Miscue Analysis • Through miscue analysis, a teacher can determine the extent to which the reader uses and coordinates graphic-sound, syntactic, and semantic information from the text. To analyze miscues, a teacher should ask himself or herself at least four crucial questions (Goodman & Burke, 1972): • Does the miscue change the meaning? • Does the miscue sound like language? • Do the miscue and the text word look and sound alike? • Was an attempt made to correct the miscue?
Figure 6.3 The Effectiveness of Using Reading Strategies
Figure 6.5 Reading Levels Determined by Running Records
Chapter Seven Word Identification
Between the Lines In this chapter, you will discover: • Phases of word identification. • Guidelines and strategies for teaching phonics. • Strategies for teaching words in context. • Strategies for teaching rapid recognition of words. • Guidelines for balancing word identification instruction.