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  1. Case Studies Harry Anthony Patrinos World Bank November 2009

  2. Private Education Provision • Comprehensive Education • Using Assessments

  3. Private Education Provision and Public Finance:The Netherlands

  4. Origins • 1917: ‘schools to the parents’ • Segregation ended conflict • Freedom of education, religion, constitution • Today: • Less religious, unified • But schools retain independence • Ease of entry

  5. Secondary School Shares

  6. Primary Schools by Orientation (%)

  7. A Top Performer

  8. But Need to Estimate Causal Impact • Randomized trials are gold standard • Strategy: find variable that matters for treatment (relevance) but not outcome (exclusion) • Control for endogeneity in choice (enter private school) arising from selection on unobservables • A good instrument predicts choice, but not achievement

  9. Religion Important in Selection • School choice and diversity of providers • Parents choosers • PISA 2006 asks if choice based on religion • 50% choose based on religion (Teelken 1998) • 91% of private schools religious • 59% of all schools religious • Private schools make up 65% of all schools

  10. Real Impact of Private Schools

  11. Summary • School choice with public finance, with strong regulations • Learning achievements with equity • Large private sector with public funding does not mean weak central role • Rigorous analysis shows private schools have causal impact on achievement

  12. The Impact of the 1999 Education Reform in Poland: Extending Comprehensive Schooling

  13. Goals of 1999 Reform in Poland • Raise level of education • Equalize education opportunities • Support quality improvements

  14. Old Structure New Structure Exam Exam Exam Exam Exam Exam Exam Matura Matura Matura Matura Matura Change in Structure of System

  15. OECD average Impressive Gains PISA

  16. Empirical Method • Estimate distribution of scores change • Assess effects of factors of interest • Extension obligatory education by 1 year • Postponing vocational education by 1 year • Specifically whether students who were in vocational schools in 2000 would have similar scores in 2003 or 2006 in new lower secondary comprehensive schools • Propensity score matching

  17. Results of Matching

  18. Results of Matching

  19. Summary • Not all transition countries improved • Students might be accustomed to test taking, but not reason for improvement • Delay of vocational led to change • Increase hours of relevant instruction

  20. Assessments can be used to Inform Policy Decisions:The Case of Jordan

  21. Results can be used to Trigger Reform • PISA/TIMSS provide opportunity for countries to: • Evaluate education systems • Establish benchmarks for future tracking • Inform policy responses

  22. Case of Jordan • Compares education system against others • Analyzes progress towards educational quality • Participates in World Education Indicators • which benchmarks systems to OECD countries

  23. IAEP II 1990 • Jordan first Arab country to participate in International Assessment of Educational Progress (IAEP II) • IAEP II study launched simultaneously with Jordan’s review of education system, which led to comprehensive reform

  24. Jordan Participated in TIMSS 1999 • The results of the study came as a shock • About 75% of students in mathematics and 67% of students in science scored lower than the international average • Jordan ranked 3rd from the bottom in both subjects among the 20 participating countries

  25. Education Reform • Expert committee established to investigate causes of poor performance • Item-by-item examination of the test and school curricula • Jordan re-administered the entire TIMSS examination • Results identical to those obtained during the first round of testing • However, the results served to inform efforts to reform educational quality

  26. Actions Taken • Establish benchmarks of 13-year-olds’ achievement • Identify strength and weakness in each subject • Compare performance of students • Inform teacher training • Analyze characteristics related to achievement • Target negative and positive influences

  27. Jordan Improves in TIMSS

  28. Summary • Use of results provides significant returns • Cost of assessment is worthwhile, given the significant benefits • Assessments are part of efforts to evaluate education systems • Used to establish benchmarks • Most importantly, inform policy responses

  29. Harry Anthony Patrinos hpatrinos@worldbank.org