Medical TerminologyBasics Chapter 1
Health care workers need to know many medical terms in order to do their jobs well. Medical Terminology Knowledge
There are 4 categories of medical terms: • Constructed terms • Eponyms • Abbreviations • Acronyms TAKE THIS DOWN IN YOUR NOTES, PLEASE!
CONSTRUCTED TERMS Medical terms made up of several distinct parts.
EPONYMS Medical Terms named after the people who discovered a disease or scientific process. Example: “Pasteurization” is an Eponym named after the scientist Louis Pasteur.
ABBREVIATIONS Short versions of longer words. For example: Histo is the short version of the word: Histology , which means the “study of tissues”
ABBREVIATIONS Another example: Stat is the short version of the word: Statim, which is a Latin word that means “immediately”
ACRONYMS Words created from the first letter of each word found in a group of words. For example: “SOB” stands for: “Short Of Breath.”
What are the four major types of Medical Terms? • Constructed terms • Eponyms • Abbreviations • Acronyms
Constructed Terms The most prevalent type of medical terms
Constructed Terms are: Words made up of several parts. . .
. . .such as this common word: Biology
The first part is: The second part is: Bio- -logy Bio + logy = Biology
Bio- means: -logy means: Life, Living Things (the) Study of How would you define: “Biology” from its parts?
Biology is defined as: “The study of Life and Living things”
This means we are actually taking apart words, defining the meaning of the individual parts, and building a whole definition based on the meanings of the parts.
Word parts can include: • Prefixes • Word Roots • Suffixes • Combining Vowels
Comprehension Check- • What do we call medical terms that are built by connecting word parts/word elements? • Constructed Terms
Comprehension Check- • What word parts/word elements are typically used to build constructed terms? • Word Roots, Prefixes, Suffixes, Combining vowels
Let’s look at another constructed medical term, “Physiology”. Physi/o/logy = Physi = nature (word root) -logy = the study of (suffix) Defined as: The study of nature
Did you notice in the last word, physiology, that there is a vowel– “o”—that stands alone? • This is called the combining vowel.
What are the two word parts? Word root = Suffix = Physi -logy
What does each word part mean? Physi = -logy = Nature (the) study of
So, in the word physiology, how does the vowel— “o”– function? It isn’t part of the word root or the suffix. Remember: Physi: (word root) = “Nature” -logy: (suffix) = “the study of” What about the “o”? Why is the “o” even there?
The vowel– “o”– functions as a connector between the word root, Physi, and the suffix, -logy. • We need to add the vowel “o” because the suffix—logy, begins with a consonant letter, “L.”
Color Coding of word parts: From now on you will see: • all WORD ROOTS highlighted in PURPLE • all COMBINING VOWELS highlighted in RED • all SUFFIXES highlighted in BLUE • all PREFIXES highlighted in GREEN
Medical Terms that are constructed from parts • To review, medical terms that are constructed from parts may include: • Word Roots • Prefixes • Suffixes • One or more Combining Vowels (usually an “o” or an “i”
Word roots, prefixes, suffixes Let’s learn about each of these things separately. First: • Word Roots.
Word Root: the Foundation • The Word Root is the basic foundation of a constructed medical term • Usually tells about the body part/system • Other word parts can be added to a word root
Example word root: cardi • cardi = heart • Words with cardiwill always refer to the heart
Prefix: a beginning • Always attaches to the BEGINNING of a word **IMPORTANT NOTE: The meaning of a prefix always remains the same.
Example: endo always means “within” no matter what it attaches to. Look at the words: endothelium, endocarditis, endotracheal, endoscope In all of these words,endo- always means “within.
*****IMPORTANT NOTE***** Not all medical terms (words) have prefixes!
Suffix: an ending • Always attaches to the END of a word • Makes a word a noun or an adjective **IMPORTANT NOTE: The meaning of a suffix always remains the same.
Example: -itis always means “inflammation” no matter what it attaches to. Look at the words: sinusitis, rhinitis, tendonitis, bursitis, appendicitis In all of these words, -itis always means “inflammation.”
Combining vowel: a connector Sometimes the word root is followed by a special vowel that acts as a “connector” between the word root and the suffix, or in some cases, between a word root and a second word root.
Example 1: Cardi + o + graphy Example 2: Electr + o + cardi + o + graph
Cardi (word root) = Graphy (suffix) = “o” = (combining vowel) Heart (the) process of recording **NOTE: combining vowels do not add to the meaning of constructed medical terms EXAMPLE #1 CARDIOGRAPHY
Electr(word root # 1)= o (combining vowel) Cardi(word root # 2)= o (combining vowel) graph (suffix) = Electrical Heart Instrument used to record EXAMPLE # 2 ELECTROCARDIOGRAPH
Let’s try another example: Myoelectric Here is how to divide that word into its parts: my/o/electr/ic • Root # 1 = my • Combining vowel = o • Root # 2 = electr • Suffix = ic
Let’s Practice! Take apart the word . . . Cardiomyopathy First, determine how many WORD ROOTS there are.
Next, find the combining vowels that are attached to each word root: Cardi + o My + o
Finally, identify the ending, called the suffix: Cardi/o/my/o/+? -pathy
Well done! You have taken apart and built back up a medical term: Cardi/o/my/o/pathy = Cardiomyopathy
But we’re not quite finished yet. What does each word element, or word part actually mean?
Cardi/o = heart My/o = muscle -pathy = disease ------------------------------------- So, you could base a simple definition off of the knowledge of the word parts. “Disease of the heart muscle” or “Heart muscle disease.”
Comprehension Checker- • Prefixes are placed where? • Suffixes are placed where? • Combining vowels are used when? • at the beginning of words • at the end of word roots • when a word has more than one word root or when the suffix begins with a consonant letter
Some medical terms are not constructed using word parts, but are derived from original Latin or Greek words from ancient times.
Example: The term cochlea is a Latin word that means “snail shell.” The cochlea of the ear closely resembles the shape and look of a snail shell.
Pronunciation Practice Cardiology Electrocardiogram Neurological Cyanotic Thoracic Duodenal Radiographer Hypodermic Cardiomegaly Eponym Acronym Abbreviation Electrocardiograph Psychiatrist Endocarditis Sinusitis Venous Cardialgia