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Radiation Can Be Fun….!!!! But R.E.S.P.E.C.T. it. Radiation Safety Training Nuclear Medicine Technologists. G eneral Safety. P atient Safety. S taff Safety. Overview. Federal & State Regulatory Concerns Natural Sources of Radiation Exposure Occupational Sources of Radiation Exposure

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slide1

Radiation Can Be Fun….!!!!

But R.E.S.P.E.C.T. it.......

radiation safety training nuclear medicine technologists
Radiation Safety TrainingNuclear Medicine Technologists
  • General Safety
  • Patient Safety
  • Staff Safety
overview
Overview
  • Federal & State Regulatory Concerns
  • Natural Sources of Radiation Exposure
  • Occupational Sources of Radiation Exposure
  • Regulatory Exposure Limits
  • Basic Radiation Safety Principles
  • Biological Effects
  • UCHC Safety Requirements
radiation vs radioactivity
Radiation vs. Radioactivity
  • Radiation - Energy in transit in the form of high speed particles and electromagnetic waves.
  • Ionizing Radiation - Radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly bound electrons from their orbits, causing the atom to become charged or ionized.
  • Radioactivity - Spontaneous transformation of an unstable atom and often results in the emission of radiation. This process is referred to as a transformation, a decay or a disintegration of an atom.
gamma decay

X-RAYS

γ

GAMMA RAYS

Gamma Decay
external vs internal radiation exposure
External vs. Internal Radiation Exposure
  • External exposure – x-rays, brachytherapy patients, iodine therapies, dose preparation and administration
  • Internal deposition – contamination from an iodine patient resulting in an ingestion of radioactive materials
slide9

§20.1201 Occupational dose limits for adults.

  • The licensee shall control the occupational dose to individual adults, except for planned special exposures under §20.1206, to the following dose limits.
  • (1) An annual limit, which is the more limiting of --
  • (i) The total effective dose equivalent being equal to 5 rems (0.05 Sv); or
  • (ii) The sum of the deep-dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to any individual organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye being equal to 50 rems (0.5 Sv).
  • (2) The annual limits to the lens of the eye, to the skin of the whole body, and to the skin of the extremities, which are:
  • (i) A lens dose equivalent of 15 rems (0.15 Sv), and
  • (ii) A shallow-dose equivalent of 50 rem (0.5 Sv) to the skin of the whole body or to the skin of any extremity.
radiation exposure limits
Radiation Exposure Limits

Rem Per Year

5 or 5,000 mrems

50 or 50,000 mrems

15 or 15,000 mrems

50 or 50,000 mrems

Type of exposure

Total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) which is the sum of the deep-dose equivalent (for external exposures) and the committed effective dose equivalent (for internal exposures) for the whole body

Sum of the deep-dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent to any individual organ or tissue other than the lens of the eye

Eye dose equivalent (lens of the eye)

Shallow dose equivalent to the skin or to any extremity

radiation exposure limits1

1.25

18.75

7.5

(1,250 mrem)

(5.0 rem/yr)

(18,750 mrem)

(75 rem/yr)

(7,500 mrem)

(30 rem/yr)

Radiation Exposure Limits

(State of Connecticut Administrative Regulations Sect. 19-24-5)

Type of Exposure

Rem Per Calendar Quarter

Whole body; Head and trunk; Active blood-forming organs; Lens of eyes, or gonads.

Hands and forearms; Feet and ankles.

Skin of whole body.

Fetus

500 mrem Total Gestation

(0.5 rem)

basic radiation safety principles

Time

Distance

Shielding

Contamination Control

Basic Radiation Safety Principles
inverse square law 137 cs 192 ir

g - gamma radiation

g

g

g

g

g

10,000

2,500

g

g

1 cm

2 cm

400

5 cm

g

10 cm

100

g

g

20 cm

25

g

g

Inverse Square Law(137Cs 192Ir)
  • For a point source, the intensity varies inversely as the square of the distance from the source.
radiation exposure monitoring

Whole Body Radiation Badge

Worn Underneath Pb Apron

Collar Radiation Badge

Worn Outside Pb Apron At Neck Level

Extremity Radiation Badge

Worn on Primary Hand

Closest to Radiation Source

BLACK ICON

RED ICON

Radiation Exposure Monitoring
slide34

THYROID COUNTS

  • Within The same week for 131-I
  • Within 7 days 125-I
  • MDA about 0.0005 UCI, o.5 NCI
  • MDD, 131-i 0.5 mrem TODE
slide35

AREAS REQUIRING FURTHER

DISCUSSION

  • Thyroid counts
  • Signatures
  • Spills
  • Package surveys
  • Gloves in hot lab-monitoring
  • Access to the department
  • Incorrect 99m-TC dose
slide36

PACKAGE WIPE TEST AND

EXPOSURE RATE LIMITS

CONTAMINANT AVERAGE DPM/CM^2 DPM/100 CM^2

Beta/Gamma 22 2200

Alpha 2.2 220

T.I. = mrem/hr @ 1 meter from sufrace

TRANSPORT INDEX MAX. MR/HR SURFACE LABEL

0 (<= 0.05) < 0.5 mr/hr White I

0.05 to <= 1.0 0.5 to <= 50 mr/hr Yellow -II

1.0 to <= 10 50 to <= 200 mr/hr Yellow- III

> 10 200 to <= 1000 mr/hr Exc. Use!!!

slide37

HOT LAB PPE

  • Personnel protective equipment required for entry
  • Gloves
  • Dosimetry
  • Lab coat
slide38

INJECTION ROOM

  • PPE highly recommended when entering
  • PPE required if injecting
  • PPE required if assisting
  • PPE required if handling any possibly contaminated item
slide39

OTHER AREAS

  • PPE required
  • Injecting rad mat
  • Handling/assisting patients who have been injected
  • Handling items that may be contaminated
slide40

PERSONAL SURVEYS

  • A survey of the hands and other body areas with documentation
  • Suggested very strongly to survey shoes
  • Report contamination to RSO
  • This is an NRC requirement
slide41

EXAMPLE

  • What label is required on a package with the following monitoring results ?
  • 10 MR/hr surface, 1 MR @ 1m, wipe test BKG. 285 CPM, gross CPM of 1250
slide42

EXAMPLES

  • Background 430 CPM, outside wipe 360 CPM?
  • Background 310 CPM, outside wipe 349 CPM?
  • Background 265 CPM, outside wipe 5500 CPM?
nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures
Nuclear Medicine Diagnostic Procedures
  • Radionuclides with short half lives (e.G., 99mtc @ 6 hrs)
  • No significant external radiation exposure hazard to staff or family
  • Contamination precautions and universal precautions should always be followed
pregnancy declaration
Pregnancy Declaration
  • NRC requires a signed declaration of pregnancy for occupational workers to limit exposures to 500 mrem/9months or 50 mrem in any one month.
emergency procedures
Emergency Procedures
  • Address medical emergency first !!
  • Follow radiation patient code procedures.
  • If the patient should die or require emergency surgery, contact a member of the Radiation Safety Office immediately at X-2250.
slide49

Radiation Exposures from Consumer Products

1

1 Adapted from NCRP 95

2BEDE = Bronchial Epithelial Dose Equivalent; WB = Whole Body; IDF = Ingestion Dose from Foods

BMDE = Bronchial Mucosa Dose Equivalent; CGDE = Corneal Germinal Dose Equivalent; SODE = Selected Organ Dose Equivalent

slide50

Smoking a pack and a half of cigarettes a day will add about 1,300 mrem/year to one's effective dose

Flying from New York to San Francisco results in the absorption of an extra

2-3 mrem of cosmic radiation

6-8 from NY to Japan

Radiation Exposures From ?

slide51

Radiation Exposures From ?

For the Skylab astronauts, 2,000 to 8,000 mrem from cosmic radiation

slide52

Risks which Increase Chance of Death by 1 in 1 milliona

a B.L. Cohen and I.S. Lee, ”Catalog of Risks Extended and Updated”, Health Physics, Vol. 61, Sept. 1991.

slide53

More Risks which Increase Chance of Death by 1 in 1 milliona

a B.L. Cohen and I.S. Lee, “Catalog of Risks Extended and Updated”, Health Physics, Vol. 61, Sept. 1991.

slide54

Remember !!!

Controlling Exposures

Minimizes Risk