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Hinduism Re-Cap. Sanatana Dharma Vedas/Upanishads Epic poems- Ramayana, Mahabarata-Bhagavad-Gita Major theistic groups Four types of yoga-raja, jnana, bhakti, karma The caste system Role of the guru Unique characteristics of “Hindu” or “Hinduism” Brahman, samsara, moksha, maya

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hinduism re cap
Hinduism Re-Cap
  • Sanatana Dharma
  • Vedas/Upanishads
  • Epic poems- Ramayana, Mahabarata-Bhagavad-Gita
  • Major theistic groups
  • Four types of yoga-raja, jnana, bhakti, karma
  • The caste system
  • Role of the guru
  • Unique characteristics of “Hindu” or “Hinduism”
  • Brahman, samsara, moksha, maya
  • Mudra, mantra, chakras, asanas
jain overview
Jain Overview
  • Doesn’t use the Vedas for religious foundation
  • Only about 6 million practitioners; a minority in India
  • The modern symbol incorporates the swastika and other representations of important principles
  • Mahavira was the most important teacher of “modern”
    • Contemporary of Buddha
history of jainism
History of Jainism
  • Pre-Vedic
    • Another “indigenous” Indian religion
      • Ancient Hindu Buddhist sources mention Jainism as being much older than either one
    • Why would this be considered controversial from the Hindu viewpoint?
the 24 th tirthankaras
The 24th Tirthankaras
  • Mahavira
    • Contemporary of the Buddha (d. 527 BCE)
      • Also a prince- kshatriya clan
      • Renounced his comfortable life.
      • Meditated for 12 years (silence, fasting…)
      • Wandering teacher for 30 years
      • The last of 24 Tirthankaras (“Ford makers”)
    • What is described by this last metaphor?
  • First one lost in history
    • Lord Rishabha
    • 23rd lived @800 BCE
    • elevated beyond the human plane of existence
    • models for good and ethically and morally correct behavior
    • honored through images
    • Originally, folks are happy and virtuous at beginning of a cycle
    • Tirthankaras “invent” religion to keep people away from evils of the world
two branches of monks
Two Branches of Monks
  • Two groups within Jains
    • Digambaras
      • Left the area of Mahavira; did not believe in the changes to his teachings
      • Monks known as the “sky clad”; they cruise around naked
      • Women can’t go as high or as low as men
      • They can only get liberation (freedom from samsara) by being re-born in a man’s body
      • Only possessions are a feather broom and a gourd of water; major ascetics!
two branches of monks1
Two Branches of Monks
  • Svetambaras
    • Stayed in the area
    • Accepted the changes to Mahavira’s teachings in the 3rd century BCE
    • Women can achieve the same kind of spiritual level as men
    • Wear a white cloth (“white-clad”) instead of being nekked!
major jain principles
Major Jain Principles
  • Ahimsa
    • The principle of non-violence; do not harm other living things
    • Humans have no special right to supremacy over other living creatures
    • Some ascetics wear masks to avoid inhaling insects
    • =strictly vegetarian diet!
    • Avoidance of occupations that would harm things (e.g. agriculture is considered harmful)
more jain principles
More Jain Principles
  • Aparigraha
    • The idea of non-attachment to things and to people
    • Possessions possess US
    • Keeping personal goods to a minimum
    • Dog story moral- as long as we cling to things, we will bleed for them
    • Attachments to friends and family can also be interpreted as binding one to the wheel of life and death (samsara)
more jain principles1
More Jain Principles
  • Anekantwad
    • The idea of “relativity” especially in moral judgments
    • Any issue can be seen from multiple sides; all sides have a degree of truth to them
    • No point in finding fault with others when we should be concentrating on freeing ourselves from impurity
comparisons to other faiths
Comparisons to Other Faiths
  • Jiva- an individual’s higher consciousness
    • What are parallel terms in other traditions for this principle?
  • Jina- an individual who has triumphed over his/her passions
    • Similar term from another faith?
modern jain symbol
Modern Jain Symbol
  • Swastika= wheel of life/death/rebirth
  • Ahimsa=represented by or scribed on open palm
  • Three dots=insight, knowledge, conduct
  • Crescent and dot=the liberated soul reaching the highest point of development
what is a sikh
What Is a Sikh?
  • 'Sikh' in the Punjabi language means 'disciple', Sikhs are the disciples of God who follow the writings and teachings of the Ten Sikh Gurus.
philosophy and beliefs 1
Philosophy and Beliefs 1
  • There is only One God. He is the same God for all people of all religions.
  • The soul goes through cycles of births and deaths before it reaches the human form.
  • Sikhs should remember God at all times and practice living a virtuous and truthful life while maintaining a balance between their spiritual obligations and temporal obligations.
philosophy and beliefs 2
Philosophy and Beliefs 2
  • The true path to achieving salvation and merging with God does not require renunciation of the world or celibacy, but living the life of a householder, earning a honest living and avoiding worldly temptations and sins.
  • Sikhism preaches that people of different races, religions, or sex are all equal in the eyes of God. It teaches the full equality of men and women. Women can participate in any religious function or perform any Sikh ceremony or lead the congregation in prayer.
philosophy and beliefs 3
Philosophy and Beliefs 3
  • God cannot take human form
  • The goal of human life is to break the cycle of birth's and deaths by following a guru’s teaching
  • Rejects all forms of blind rituals such as fasting, religious vegetarianism, pilgrimages, superstitions, yoga, as well as any form of idol worship
    • What is a blind ritual?
  • Honest labor and work (Kirat Karna) are the approved way of living one’s life. It is considered honorable to earn ones daily bread through honest work and not by begging or dishonest means
    • How does this sound for most people?
the five cardinal vices
The Five Cardinal Vices
  • There are five vices to avoid
    • Kam (lust)
    • Krodh (anger)
    • Lobh (greed)
    • Moh (worldly attachment)
    • Ahankar (pride).
  • If one can overcome these, they will achieve salvation
  • Are these vices similar to those portrayed in other religions?
guru nanak
Guru Nanak
  • The founder of the Sikh religion
    • born in 1469.
    • He preached a message of love and understanding and criticized the blind rituals of the Hindus and Muslims.
  • Nine successive Gurus.
    • The final living Guru died in 1708
      • Guru Gobind Singh
guru gobind singh
Guru Gobind Singh
  • Guru Gobind Singh declared that the Sikhs no longer needed a living guru
    • Sri Guru Granth Sahib-spiritual successor, his knowledge embodied into spiritual writings
    • Khalsa- physical successors; the “pure ones”
    • Established the “five Ks” of Sikh accessories (see later slides)
sri guru granth sahib
Sri Guru Granth Sahib
  • Sri Guru Granth Sahib
    • Unique in the world of religious scriptures
    • It is the spiritual head of the Sikh religion
    • Contains the poetry of the Gurus and also the writings of saints of other faiths whose thoughts were consistent with those of the Sikh Gurus
  • What are the ramifications of a sacred text as a spiritual head?
  • Soldier-saints.
    • commitment
    • dedication
    • social consciousness
  • The Khalsa are men and women who have undergone the Sikh baptism ceremony and who strictly follow the Sikh Code of Conduct and Conventions and wear the prescribed physical articles of the faith.
harmandir sahib
Harmandir Sahib
  • Harmandir Sahib
    • (The Golden Temple) at Amritsar
      • In the state of Punjab in northern India.
  • It is the inspirational and historical center of Sikhism
    • Not a mandatory place of pilgrimage or worship.
      • All places where Sri Guru Granth Sahib are installed are considered equally holy for Sikhs.
gurdwaras sikh temple
Gurdwaras (Sikh Temple)
  • remove the shoes
  • cover ones bare head
    • signs of respect towards the sovereignty of the Guru Granth Sahib.
  • Hands are washed
    • In some Gurdwaras there are also foot washes.
  • Approaching the Guru Granth Sahib one is expected to bow down and touch the floor as a sign of further respect towards the Eternal Sikh Guru.
  • Offerings of cash are usually made at this time
    • These offerings are voluntary
  • All people irrespective of their status sit on the floor as a sign of equality
  • One may enter or leave the congregation at any time.
  • Men and women do not generally sit together but on separate sides of the room
    • Both groups are at an equal distance from the Guru Granth Sahib.
  • Gurdwaras are open to all people of all religions and are generally open 24 hours a day.
    • Some Gurdwaras also provide temporary accommodations for visitors or pilgrims.
    • Only vegetarian food is served so that no person may be offended and all people of all religions can sit together to share a common meal irrespective of any dietary restrictions.
spiritual evolution
Spiritual Evolution
  • Stage 1: Manmukh
    • A person who is self-centered and only thinks about himself and the material world around him and is totally oblivious to God.
  • Stage 2: Sikh
    • Anyone who sets out on the path of learning and meets the specific definition of a Sikh as appears in the Reht Maryada (Official Code of Conduct).
spiritual evolution1
Spiritual Evolution
  • Stage 3: Khalsa
    • Total dedication to Sikhism. One who has has shed his ego and personality and truly honors the memory of Guru Gobind Singh through his actions and deeds.
  • Stage 4: Gurmukh
    • One who has achieved mukhti (salvation) and is totally God-centered
the sikh articles of faith
The Sikh Articles of Faith
  • The “Five Ks”
    • What does the external adornment of Sikhs do for them?
    • Would any of those accoutrements be problematic in the United States? Which one(s) and why?
  • Long unshorn hair. A symbol of spirituality. The Kesh reminds a Khalsa to behave like the Guru's. It is a mark of dedication and group consciousness, showing a Khalsa's acceptance of God's will. Long hair have long been a common element of many spiritual prophets of various religions such as Jesus, Moses and Buddha.
  • Comb. A symbol of hygiene and discipline as opposed to the matted unkempt hair of ascetics. A Khalsa is expected to regularly wash and comb their hair as a matter of self discipline.
  • Steel bracelet. A symbol to remind the wearer of restraint in their actions and remembrance of God at all times.
  • Drawers/short pants
    • A symbol signifying self control and chastity.
  • Ceremonial sword/knife
    • A symbol of dignity and the Sikh struggle against injustice.
    • Worn purely as a religious symbol and not as a weapon.
religious emblems khanda
Religious Emblems- Khanda
  • As the Cross is to Christians or the Star of David is to Jews.
      • The symbol derives its name from the double-edged sword called a Khanda
      • This double-edged sword is a metaphor of Divine Knowledge, its sharp edges cleaving Truth from Falsehood.
    • The circle around the Khanda is the Chakar.
      • The Chakar being a circle without a beginning or an end symbolizes the perfection of God who is eternal.
      • The Chakar is surrounded by two curved swords called Kirpans.
more emblems nishan sahib
More Emblems- Nishan Sahib
  • Nishan Sahib is the name given to the flag which is seen flying outside every Sikh Gurdwara (Temple).
      • It is a triangular piece of ochre or saffron colored cloth with the Khanda emblem in the middle.
      • The flag post also has a khanda or spear on top and is usually covered with the same cloth as the flag.
the khalistan movement
The Khalistan Movement
  • Radical group in India working for independent Sikh state in Punjab region
    • Punjab had been independent previously
  • Indian reprisals eventually killed Sikh leader in Operation Blue Star
    • Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale led Damdami Taksal, a group of devout Sikhs who wanted a theocratic Sikh state
  • Sikh bodyguards responsible for assassination of Indira Gandhi (Indian PM) in 1984
    • Retaliation for Blue Star desecration
    • Anti-Sikh riots in India as well
  • Today, Khalistan issue is occasionally revived politically, but otherwise defunct?