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Family Tree of Antennas David Conn VE3KL. Acknowledgements. Doug Leach VE3XK Bert Barry VE3QAA QCWA Members The Inventors References given in slides ARRL Antenna book. Why Make a Family Tree. To understand the overall (complex) picture To enable us to select a good antenna

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family tree of antennas david conn ve3kl
Family Tree of AntennasDavid Conn VE3KL


Doug Leach VE3XK

Bert Barry VE3QAA

QCWA Members

The Inventors

References given in slides

ARRL Antenna book

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

why make a family tree
Why Make a Family Tree
  • To understand the overall (complex) picture
  • To enable us to select a good antenna
  • To organize and compare existing designs

Antenna Types

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

antenna types 1 6
Antenna Types 1…6
  • Resonant Wires: Dipole, Yagi, Quad, Vertical, Moxon Square …….
  • Long wires (non-resonant): Zepp/G5RV…
  • Resistively Loaded: Beverage, Pennant, Rhombic …
  • Small Loops/Wires: Resonant Loading Circuits

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

antenna types 1 61
Antenna Types 1…6

5. Phased Arrays: Yagi, Collinear, Sterba Curtain, Rhombic, Four Element Rectangular Array, Many Others …

  • Lens Antennas for UHF/Microwaves: Parabolic Dish, Helix …

Family Tree

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario





Transmission Lines


Transmitting Antennas


Receiving Antennas


Amateur Radio



Simulation/Smith Chart





Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

transmitting antennas
Transmitting Antennas
  • Performance measured by Gain & Directivity
  • Low Loss: Transmitter Matching
  • SWR of 2:1 loses half the power
  • Ground/Ionosphere… dominates
  • Polarization (Vertical for MF Transmitters)

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

receiving antennas snr
Receiving Antennas…SNR
  • Performance measured by RDF (dB)
  • RDF (Receiving Directivity Factor) defined as peak response in desired direction to average response in all directions
  • Ground/Ionosphere… extremely important
  • Consider Polarization: VHF weak signal (DX) uses Horizontal Polarization

Antenna Examples

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

mf antennas need good s n not gain for receive
MF AntennasNeed good S/N…not Gain for Receive
  • Inverted L, T
  • Beverage Antenna… the best?
  • Terminated loops (Pennant, Flag)
  • Vertical Phased Arrays
  • Vertical GP antennas
  • K9AY Loop
  • 4 Square Vertical

Green indicates Receive Only Antenna

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

inverted l t vertical k9ay antennas
Inverted L,T,Vertical,K9AY Antennas

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

mf receiving antenna performance
MF Receiving Antenna Performance


Vertical phased array B/S


2 Broadside Beverages 1.75 W


Beverage 1.0 W


Small 4X4 Square




80 m high

Vertical Omni

Beverage 0.5 W




Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

Low Dipole

classic dipole type 1 elevation plot
Classic Dipole: type 1 .. Elevation Plot

35 feet


RDF = 8.3 dB Good

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

classic dipole type 1 azimuth plot
Classic Dipole: type 1 .. Azimuth Plot

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

classic vertical ground plane type 1
Classic Vertical Ground Plane: type 1

RDF =5 dB

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

two element quad azimuth type 1
Two Element Quad…Azimuth: type 1

RDF = 12.84 dB…high

31 feet high to top

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

end fed zepp antenna type 2
End Fed Zepp Antenna: type 2

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

mf pennant receive only type 3
MF Pennant…Receive only: type 3
  • Ground independent
  • Very Low Gain (-35 dB)
  • RDF = 7.39 dB…OK
  • Cardoid pattern
  • F/B 25 dB
  • Small..20 feet each arm
  • Terminated loop class

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

small magnetic loop antenna type 4 very high voltages
Small Magnetic Loop Antenna: type 4Very High Voltages


Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

microwave antenna array type 5 6 space diversity
Microwave Antenna Array: type 5 & 6Space Diversity



Wanted Rays

Unwanted Rays


Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

arrays antennas
Arrays Antennas
  • Driven arrays: Collinear, Sterba and Bobtail Curtains, two dimensional arrays, three dimensional (lens) arrays, Log Periodic
    • End fire or broadside or any beam shape
  • Parasitic arrays: Yagi

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

four element rectangle easy to visualize
Four Element Rectangle.. Easy to Visualize

ARRL Antenna Book

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

collinear arrays
Collinear Arrays

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

bobtail curtain driven array maximum gain 4 5 dbi low angle radiation
Bobtail Curtain Driven ArrayMaximum Gain 4.5 dBiLow Angle Radiation

ARRL Antenna Book

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

log periodic antenna array looks like a tapered yagi but each element is driven
Log Periodic Antenna Array…looks like a tapered Yagi but each element is driven
  • Very Broad Band
  • Dimensions repeat logarithmically
  • QST Sept. 2002

ARRL Antenna Book

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

vhf uhf microwave antennas
VHF/UHF/Microwave Antennas
  • Yagi, Quagi, Quads ….stacked versions
  • Cycloid Dipole…

Circular Polarization..Repeaters

  • Helix and Helix Arrays
  • Vertical, Jpole
  • Corner Reflectors, Parabolas, Lenses
  • Circuit board patch antenna arrays

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

the j pole antenna type 1
The J Pole Antenna: type 1
  • Easy to Build
  • No ground plane needed
  • Many designs available

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

cycloid dipole circular polarization repeaters type 1
Cycloid DipoleCircular Polarization…Repeaters: type 1

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

  • Tree must include antenna design as well as the physical description
  • Tree must include: ground effects, basics of the ionosphere
  • Tree must link to the most important well proven designs
  • Tree must help amateurs at all levels to select an appropriate antenna

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario

many thanks especially to the organizers
Many Thanks: Especially to the Organizers

Antenna Presentation: Carp,Ontario