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BOREAL FORESTS Marion B. and Tesha K. (“Marietta”)
LOCATION -South of the Arctic tundra -Latitude: around 60° -In northern regions across North America, Asia, and Europe (“Wikipedia”)
CLIMATE • Sub arctic • Long Winters • Dry and cold • Short summers (mild-warm) 19 hrs. sun • Winter: 6-8 hrs. sun (“Marietta”)
STATISTICS • Avg. annual temp: 0°C (≥-5°C ≤5°C) • Avg. annual precipitation: 100-125cm. • Temperature Range: 41°C (“Blue Planet Biomes”)
FLORA TYPES • Trees: conifers (evergreens, firs, etc); needles all year long -produce cones instead of flowers (“Coniferous Forest”) --able to endure intense cold and drought during winter (Living in the Environment)s -some mosses and algae grow on ground -needles reduce surface area loose less water -needle coating=waxy and waterproof -stomata sunken in wind protection -dark color absorbs heat photosynthesis sooner -winterfrozen soil, harsh climatelow plant diversity (“Marietta”)
FAUNA (“Marietta”) • Predators (with fur): weasel family, lynx, some tigers -feed on rabbits, squirrels, lemmings, and voles -elk, moose, beavers=large herbivores • Birds: insect-eaters (wood warblers), seed eaters(finches, sparrows), omnivores (ravens) and some migratory birds
Degree of Biodiversity and Biomass Pyramid • Degree of Biodiversity: ~ 1.5 • Biomass Pyramid: (Living in the Environment)
Bibliography • “Living in the Environment” Miller, G. Tyler. (2002). Living in the Environment: principles, connections, and solutions. 12th ed. California: Brooks/Cole Thomson Learning. • “RuNet”Unknown author (1996). Taiga or Boreal Forests. Retrieved October 17, 2008, from SLW. http://www.runet.edu/~swoodwar/CLASSES/GEOG235/biomes/taiga/taiga.html • “Wikipedia”Various authors. "Taiga." Wikipedia.org. 18 Oct. 2008. 20 Oct. 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/taiga>. • “Marietta” Unknown Author. "Taiga or Boreal Forest." The Boreal Forest Biome. Marietta. 20 Oct. 2008 <http://www.marietta.edu/~biol/biomes/boreal.htm>. • “Coniferous Forest” Environmental Encyclopedia. Eds. Marci Bortman, Peter Brimblecombe, Mary Ann Cunningham, William P. Cunningham, and William Freedman. Vol. 1. 3rd ed. Farmington Hills, MI: Gale, 2003. p304. 2 vols.
Bibliography (cont.) • “Blue Planet Biomes” Strahler, Arthur N., Strahler, Arthur H., Elements of Physical Geography. John Wiley & Sons, 1984. http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/climate.htm