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PoC and Private Sector in Post Disaster/Conflict settings: the need for a systemic approach. “Peace and Stability Operations Training and Education Workshop” ( PSOTEW ) Governance Innovation for Security & Development Track 24- -28 March 2014, George Mason University, Arlington Campus.

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poc and private sector in post disaster conflict settings the need for a systemic approach

PoC and Private Sector in Post Disaster/Conflict settings: the need for a systemic approach

“Peace and Stability Operations Training and Education Workshop” (PSOTEW)

Governance Innovation for Security & Development Track

24--28 March 2014, George Mason University, Arlington Campus

Patrik Willot info@willot.com

thread line
Thread line
  • What are the needs?
  • What are the windows of opportunity for Military support?
  • Necessity of a Systemic Approach
  • Identifying the Triggers
  • Some examples…

Patrik Willot March 2014

slide3

Some characteristics of post-conflict situations (in Private Sector Development in Post-Conflict Countries. N. Mac Sweeney, Cambridge UK, DCED 2008)

Patrik Willot March 2014

poc examples more and more urban therefore no food guerilla human density etc
PoC Examples…more and more Urbantherefore: no food, guerilla, human density, etc.
  • Rule of Law:
    • Local Police must be paid their monthly salary in a situation where local GOV unable to do it. Cf. Bangui CAR
    • Local Police must be armed without delay. Cf. arms embargo on Haiti made it impossible
  • Functioning markets e.g. access of food to towns (agriculture, roads, bridges) – a priority- before Sustainable Economy
  • Functioning Economy: Youth at work with Cash for Work schemes, Gender positive discrimination towards Women, securing access to income generating activities, etc.
  • Taking into account seasons and seasonality (agricultural crops, meat supply –transhumance-) or religious (meat transformation –ethnic/religious e.g. Islamic by tradition in some Christian or Buddhist communities). Cf. Bangui CAR
  • Particular attention to Gender issues

Patrik Willot March 2014

sociology social cultural anthropology systems theory
Sociology, Social & Cultural Anthropology, Systems theory”
  • Necessity of an approach mixing analysis of structure, functions and time to determine the TRIGGERS
    • “Everything is connected to everything else”
    • (Source: Lt. General Zinni’s Twenty Lessons Learned for Humanitarian Assistance and Peace Operations”)
    • “Interdependence is the first of the fundamentals of a comprehensive approach”
    • (Source: Guiding Principles for Stabilization and Reconstruction –GPSR- Para 5.1 p. 29, PKSOI)

Patrik Willot March 2014

need for an integrated perception in community development
Need for an integrated perception in community development

Source: Master Plan for the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of

NAD and Nias Islands North Sumatra Provinces, Republic of Indonesia 2005

Patrik Willot March 2014

slide7

Society Structure, triggers, evolution in N-dimensions

Trigger 1: Basic needs are covered

Trigger N-1: Economic activity of the Private Sector

Trigger N: Rule of Law is functioning

Patrik Willot March 2014

key success factors unanimity in different sources
Key Success factors…unanimity in different sources

Keys for redefining intervention tools in analysis of post-crisis (Source: URD Group France 2010):

Avoid “Blue Print” mechanisms based on a unique evolution scenario and take into account the multiplicity of directions that the “crisis exit” may take

Favor the appropriation of analysis and diagnostic by local actors by putting into place inclusive and participative mechanisms through negotiation with State and Civil Society actors

Reinforce the sharing of information and analysis

Patrik Willot March 2014

key success factors 2
Key Success factors…(2)
  • Among the success factors listed in the “Core Pre-deployment Training Materials”
  • Credibility
  • Legitimacy
  • Promotion of National & Local Ownership
  • Source: Peace Operations Training Institute. March 2014

Patrik Willot March 2014

why what do beneficiaries think
Why? What do “Beneficiaries” think?
  • Credibility gap
    • Disaster/Post Disaster: is GOV in control? No and then maybe Yes...but 1) absorption capacity; 2) political control
    • Who are these foreign troops (MINUSTAH: before and after, U.N. /ex-colony). What is the strategy of the big powers behind?
    • U.N. troops are GOV troops: economic source of revenues, Nepal/Cholera, neighbors Somali/Kenya
  • Legitimacy gap
    • Military take stock: by default in Disaster, by choice of GOV in Post Disaster
    • Who are these NGOs? Tsunami: work done for 80% by 20%of non-clusterised NGOs (Cluster = U.N. = GOV) => Therefore no humanitarian help for rebels – Syria)

Patrik Willot March 2014

linking the different parts
Linking the different parts……

Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation Efforts

Stages and Plan for Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of

NAD and Nias Islands North Sumatra Provinces

Patrik Willot March 2014

Source: Master Plan for the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of

NAD and Nias Islands North Sumatra Provinces, Republic of Indonesia 2005

slide14

Basic Principles for Rehabilitation and Reconstruction. Source: Master Plan for the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of NAD and Nias Islands North Sumatra Provinces, Republic of Indonesia 2005

Patrik Willot March 2014

example importance of women in post crisis economics
Example: Importance of Women in Post Crisis economics

Source: Lessons Learned from “Building Back Aceh & Nias Better” BRR Tokio International Conference on Africa Development 29 May 2008

Patrik Willot March 2014

women role and interest in infrastructure development
Women role and interest in Infrastructure Development
  • Source: Lessons Learned from “Building Back Aceh & Nias Better” BRR Tokio International Conference on Africa Development 29 May 2008

Patrik Willot March 2014

women role and interest
Women role and interest
  • Source: Lessons Learned from “Building Back Aceh & Nias Better” BRR Tokio International Conference on Africa Development 29 May 2008

Patrik Willot March 2014

women role and interest1
Women role and interest
  • Source: Lessons Learned from “Building Back Aceh & Nias Better” BRR Tokio International Conference on Africa Development 29 May 2008

Patrik Willot March 2014

slide19
Relevant actions on the triggers need to be thought and evaluated with the criteria inspired from OECD DAC
  • Credible and Communicated: the partners including the civil society need to be informed and need to believe in actions and results
  • Impactful : The positive and negative changes produced by an intervention, directly or indirectly, intended or unintended.
    • What has happened as a result of the action?
    • What real difference has the activity made to the beneficiaries?
    • How many people have been affected?
  • Effective: A measure of the extent to which an action attains its objectives.
    • To what extent were the objectives achieved / are likely to be achieved?
    • What were the major factors influencing the achievement or non-achievement of the objectives?
  • Efficient: Efficiency measures the outputs -- qualitative and quantitative -- in relation to the inputs in relation to cost, timing, second best option
  • Sustainable: Sustainability is concerned with measuring whether the benefits of an activity are likely to continue after donor funding has been withdrawn.

Patrik Willot March 2014

high level gaps challenges source gps
High-Level Gaps & Challenges (Source: GPS)

Gaps = weaknesses in knowledge, recurring all the time & Challenges = shortfalls in practice….among those

  • Lack of an agreed overall vision or “storyline” to set strategic direction
  • Insufficient realism in the timelines for key recovery outcomes => unreasonable expectations from all parties
  • Inadequate links between priorities across the security, rule of law, governance, economic & social arenas
  • Insufficient understanding of host nation context & needs

Patrik Willot March 2014

years later
Years later….
  • Source: Lessons Learned from “Building Back Aceh & Nias Better” BRR Tokio International Conference on Africa Development 29 May 2008

Patrik Willot March 2014

summary
Summary
  • Systemic approach is needed but requires:
  • Credibility (hidden agenda)/Communication
  • a Holistic approach
  • a System approach (structure, evolution, process)
  • a Participatory approach => National & Local Ownership

Patrik Willot March 2014

backup

Source: Lessons Learned from “Building Back Aceh & Nias Better” BRR Tokio International Conference on Africa Development 29 May 2008

Backup

Patrik Willot March 2014

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What was the main lesson learnt from Joint Evaluation of Emergency Assistance to Rwanda (JEEAR)?

“The evaluation was highly critical of the absence of an effective political and military response to the genocide by the international community. In such a context, humanitarian action effectively became a substitute for political action and humanitarian agencies were forced to work in extremely challenging, almost impossible situations.”

Source: The Sphere Project. Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Humanitarian Response. John Bolton 2014

Patrik Willot March 2014

keys to a systemic approach to society
Keys to a Systemic approach to Society

Society

  • Has a structure
  • Has functions as in “Processes”
  • Has a dynamic evolution from one unstable equilibrium point to another

Society in post crisis undergoes threats to its structure, processes and evolution

Societies in poor countries are even more unstable

=>

…what about Societies in post crisis in poor countries….

Patrik Willot March 2014

backup2
Backup

Patrik Willot March 2014

  • Source: Lessons Learned from “Building Back Aceh & Nias Better” BRR Tokio International Conference on Africa Development 29 May 2008
backup3
Backup

Patrik Willot March 2014

  • Source: Lessons Learned from “Building Back Aceh & Nias Better” BRR Tokio International Conference on Africa Development 29 May 2008
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Backup

Patrik Willot March 2014

  • Source: Lessons Learned from “Building Back Aceh & Nias Better” BRR Tokio International Conference on Africa Development 29 May 2008
poc a definition its principles the sequence
PoC = a definition, its Principles, the sequence?
  • The Protection of Civilians (PoC) refers, among others, to efforts to secure the rights of civilians to access essential services and resources and to contribute to a secure, stable and just environment for civilians in the long term (PoC Military Reference Guide – PKSOI- January 2013)
  • Time line = Peace Support Operations (PSO) or Military Operations during Armed Conflict (MOAC)
  • 5 Principles

Patrik Willot March 2014

society as a living organism therefore a complex system
Society as a “living” organism, therefore “a complex system”

“Process” analysis is required to analyse “Value Chains

(example: seasons-> crops, safe roads->access to market, market transparent-> food for urban population. Meat market and commerce controlled by ethnic/religious group. CAR, Uganda, etc.)

Value chains, as any chains, are only as solid as their weakest element, one suffice to break the chain

Value chains need to be tackled

very upstream in critical path since

errors and benefits de-multiply

along the chain

Patrik Willot March 2014