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The Behavior of Gases. 14.1 Properties of Gases 14.2 The Gas Laws 14.3 Ideal Gases 14.4 Gases: Mixtures and Movements. Properties of Gases. Objectives: Explain why gases are easier to compress than solids or liquids are. Describe the three factors that affect gas pressure. Compressibility.

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the behavior of gases

The Behavior of Gases

14.1 Properties of Gases

14.2 The Gas Laws

14.3 Ideal Gases

14.4 Gases: Mixtures and Movements

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

properties of gases

Properties of Gases

Objectives:

Explain why gases are easier to compress than solids or liquids are.

Describe the three factors that affect gas pressure.

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

compressibility
Compressibility
  • a measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure
    • gases compress more easily because of the space between the particles
  • Factors Affecting Gas Pressure
    • amount of gas
    • volume
    • temperature

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

amount of gas and gas pressure
Amount of Gas and Gas Pressure
  • Amount of Gas – more particles in a fixed area more collisions more pressure

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

volume and gas pressure
Volume and Gas Pressure
  • Volume – more a gas is compressed the greater the pressure exerted on the container

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

temperature and gas pressure
Temperature and Gas Pressure
  • Temperature – heating the gas increases kinetic energy, increasing collisions, increasing pressure

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

the gas laws

The Gas Laws

Objectives:

Describe the relationships among temperature, pressure, and volume of a gas

Use the combined gas law to solve problems.

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

boyle s law
Boyle’s Law
  • If temperature is constant, the volume of a given mass of gas varies inversely with pressure
    • when pressure  then volume 
    • when pressure  then volume 

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

using boyle s law
Using Boyle’s Law

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

charles s law
Charles’s Law
  • As the temperature (in Kelvin) of an enclosed gas increases, the volume increases, if the pressure is constant.

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

using charles s law
Using Charles’s Law

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

gay lussac s law
Gay-Lussac’s Law
  • As the temperature of an enclosed gas increases, the pressure increases, if the volume is constant

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

using gay lussac s law
Using Gay-Lussac’s Law

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

the combined gas law
The Combined Gas Law
  • allows you to do calculations for situations in which only the amount of gas is constant.
    • Combines Boyle’s, Charles’s, and Gay-Lussac’s laws

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

using the combined gas law
Using the Combined Gas Law

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

ideal gases

Ideal Gases

Objectives:

Compute the value of an unknown using the ideal gas law

Compare and contrast real and ideal gases.

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

ideal gas law
Ideal Gas Law
  • includes all four variables (pressure, volume, temperature, moles) and allows you to calculate the number of moles in a gas law problem
    • n = # of moles
    • R = ideal gas constant = 8.31 (L•kPa)/(K•mol)

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

using the ideal gas law
Using the Ideal Gas Law

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

ideal gas
Ideal Gas
  • follows the gas laws at all conditions of pressure and temperature
    • real gases differ most from ideal gases at low temperatures and high pressures
    • real gases are most like ideal gases at high temperatures and low pressures

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

gases mixtures and movements

Gases: Mixtures and Movements

Objectives:

Relate the total pressure of a mixture of gases to the partial pressures of the component gases

Explain how the molar mass of a gas affects the rate at which the gas diffuses and effuses.

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

dalton s law
Dalton’s Law
  • In a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of the gases

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007

graham s law
Graham’s Law
  • Diffusion – molecules move from area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
  • Effusion – gases can escape from container through a small hole
    • Gases of lower molar masses diffuse and effuse faster than gases of higher molar mass

Created by C. Ippolito May 2007