The Behavior of Gases

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# The Behavior of Gases - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

The Behavior of Gases. Properties of Gases The Gas Laws Ideal Gases Gases: Mixtures and Movements. Properties of Gases. Objectives: Explain why gases are easier to compress than solids or liquids are. Describe the three factors that affect gas pressure. Compressibility.

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Presentation Transcript

### The Behavior of Gases

Properties of Gases

The Gas Laws

Ideal Gases

Gases: Mixtures and Movements

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

### Properties of Gases

Objectives:

Explain why gases are easier to compress than solids or liquids are.

Describe the three factors that affect gas pressure.

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

Compressibility
• a measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure
• gases compress more easily because of the space between the particles
• Factors Affecting Gas Pressure
• amount of gas
• volume
• temperature

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

Amount of Gas and Gas Pressure
• Amount of Gas – more particles in a fixed area more collisions more pressure

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

Volume and Gas Pressure
• Volume – more a gas is compressed the greater the pressure exerted on the container

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

Temperature and Gas Pressure
• Temperature – heating the gas increases kinetic energy, increasing collisions, increasing pressure

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

### The Gas Laws

Objectives:

Describe the relationships among temperature, pressure, and volume of a gas

Use the combined gas law to solve problems.

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

Boyle’s Law
• If temperature is constant, the volume of a given mass of gas varies inversely with pressure
• when pressure  then volume 
• when pressure  then volume 

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

Using Boyle’s Law

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

Charles’s Law
• As the temperature (in Kelvin) of an enclosed gas increases, the volume increases, if the pressure is constant.

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

Using Charles’s Law

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

Gay-Lussac’s Law
• As the temperature of an enclosed gas increases, the pressure increases, if the volume is constant

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

The Combined Gas Law
• allows you to do calculations for situations in which only the amount of gas is constant.
• Combines Boyle’s, Charles’s, and Gay-Lussac’s laws

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

### Ideal Gases

Objectives:

Compute the value of an unknown using the ideal gas law

Compare and contrast real and ideal gases.

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

Ideal Gas Law
• includes all four variables (pressure, volume, temperature, moles) and allows you to calculate the number of moles in a gas law problem
• n = # of moles
• R = ideal gas constant = 8.31 (L•kPa)/(K•mol)

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

Ideal Gas
• follows the gas laws at all conditions of pressure and temperature
• real gases differ most from ideal gases at low temperatures and high pressures

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

### Gases: Mixtures and Movements

Objectives:

Relate the total pressure of a mixture of gases to the partial pressures of the component gases

Explain how the molar mass of a gas affects the rate at which the gas diffuses and effuses.

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

Dalton’s Law
• In a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of the gases

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007

Graham’s Law
• Diffusion – molecules move from area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
• Effusion – gases can escape from container through a small hole
• Gases of lower molar masses diffuse and effuse faster than gases of higher molar mass

Created by C. Ippolito

May 2007