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chapter 12. The second war war for independence. JEFFERSON'S EXIT. Following Washington’s precedent of two terms, Jefferson left the presidency He strongly favored the nomination of James Madison. JAMES MADISON. Madison inaugurated in 1809 Part of the Virginia Dynasty

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slide1

chapter 12

The second war

war for independence

slide2

JEFFERSON'S EXIT

  • Following Washington’s precedent of two terms, Jefferson left the presidency
  • He strongly favored the nomination of James Madison.
slide3

JAMES MADISON

  • Madison inaugurated in 1809
  • Part of the Virginia Dynasty
    • Line of 4 VA Presidents between 1789 and 1829
    • (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, and Monroe)
  • Strongly Jeffersonian
slide4

MACON'S BILL #2

  • Madison took oath of office with problems still boiling with France and Great Britain.
  • Congress passed Macon’s Bill No. 2 to replace Non-Intercourse Act of 1809
  • Purpose was to get either France or Britain to trade with US
slide6

WAR OF 1812

Non-Intercourse Act1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon’s Bill No. 2.

Macon’s Bill No. 21810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.

slide7
He hoped US would go to war with EnglandNapoleon never planned on honoring agreement.British given three months to end restrictions.

NAPOLEON

  • Britain demanded US withdraw restrictions on Britian until France had withdrawn all their restrictions on US shipping.

Napoleon

caught in a trap
CAUGHT IN A TRAP?
  • Madison’s gamble failed.
  • Left with no choice but to establish embargo again against Great Britain.
  • Madison knew decision probably meant the end of American neutrality and would probably be the final steps towards war.
slide9

WAR HAWKS

  • Group of young leaders in Congress that were strongly nationalistic
  • Came mostly from the South and West.
  • Were on fire for a new war with the old enemy England
slide10

FAMOUS WAR HAWKS

  • Henry Clay--from Kentucky; elected Speaker of the House of Representatives.
  • John C. Calhoun--representative from South Carolina

John C. CalhounSouth Carolina

Henry ClayKentucky

slide11

BATTLE OF

TIPPECANOE 1811

  • Western War Hawks want to wipe out renewed Indian resistance.
  • Tecumseh and “the Prophet”
    • Twin Shawnee brothers
    • Organized confederacy of tribes east of Miss.
  • Americans thought British were aiding them. Somewhat true!
slide12

WILLIAM H. HARRISON

  • General William H. Harrison repelled an Indian raid at Tippecanoe (present day Indiana)
  • Essentially ended the Indian threat in the Old Northwest
  • War Hawks want US to attack Canada to remove further Indian threats
slide13

DANIEL WEBSTER

F “Don’t do it! Don’t go to war!”

“Hey, hey! What do ya say? Let’s not go to war today!”

  • Federalist from New Hampshire
  • Spoke against entry into the war
  • Concerned about effects on New England from possible British blockade.
slide14

WAR DECLARED

  • The United States declared war on England in June 1812.
  • Many in the US opposed to the war!!
slide15

WHY ENGLAND NOT FRANCE?

  • War Hawks pushed Madison into war
  • Traditional Republican (Jeffersonian) feelings towards France.
  • Visibility of British impressments and arming of Indians.
  • Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
  • Lure of British Canada
slide16

"MR. MADISON'S WAR"

  • US unprepared for war
    • Economy not ready, regular army not big enough, poorly trained militias, British had the best navy in the world.
slide17

OH CANADA

  • US attacks on Canada a strategic failure.
  • Attacked Ontario instead of Montreal.
  • Most of the war focused on the Great Lakes area.
  • Fighting will end in stalemate.
slide18

GENERAL MUD AND

GENERAL CONFUSION

Nicknames given to the problems faced by American soldiers in the War of 1812

slide19

SEND THE NAVY!

  • When America’s land invasions of Canada did not find success, Americans looked for success on water.
  • The navy did much better than the army!!
slide20

'OLD IRONSIDES'

Famous battleship involved was the USS Constitution or called “Old Ironsides”

slide21

GREAT LAKES

Control of the Great Lakes was vital

slide22

OLIVER HAZARD PERRY

  • Famous American sailor
  • Great victories in the Great Lakes region
  • “We have met the enemy and they are ours”
    • Famous quote of O.H. Perry
  • Forced British troops to move out of Canada setting them up for heavy losses at the armies hands.
slide23

BATTLE OF THAMES

  • Perry forces British army towards William Henry Harrison
  • Where Tecumseh is killed
slide24

WHERE'S NAPOLEON???

  • By 1814, Napoleon was defeated and British focused on North America
  • Washington DC will be burned!
slide25

BRITISH ATTACK US SOIL!

  • Attack on Fort McHenry near Baltimore important
  • American forces hold out against heavy British bombardment!
slide26

Battle of Fort McHenry,1814

And the rockets red glareThe bombs bursting in air… -- Francis Scott Key

slide27

FRANCIS SCOTT KEY

  • Watched the attack aboard a British ship as a prisoner
  • Composes the Star-Spangled Banner
  • Will become an important symbol of US nationalism after the war!
slide29

BATTLE OF HORSESHOE BEND

  • Indian attacks on US military causes Andrew Jackson to retaliate against a Creek village
  • 300 warriors killed
  • Largest Indian massacre in US history.
slide30

BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS

  • British aimed at taking mouth of Mississippi in New Orleans
  • British launch foolish frontal assault
  • Andrew Jackson commanded 7000 man force of sailors, regulars, pirates, Frenchmen, free blacks, and militiamen from KY, TN, and LA
slide32

GEN. ANDREW JACKSON

  • Famous for crushing Indians at Battle of Horseshoe Bend
  • Force made up of a variety of rough characters
  • See battle of New Orleans
new orleans
New orleans

BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS

  • Battle was needless b/c end of war had been determined 2 weeks earlier by the Treaty of Ghent
  • Battle of New Orleans resulted in tremendous American pride and nationalism
  • Jackson a hero!
slide34

NATIONALISM

Americans began to see themselves as Americans FIRST and state citizens SECOND

slide35

TREATY OF GHENT

  • Signed in late 1814
  • Both sides agree to stop fighting and restore things to the way they were before the war began
  • No mention of American grievances!!!
slide36

HARTFORD CONVENTION

  • Meeting of most New England states
  • Discuss complaints during the war
  • Hurt by blockade
  • Some delegates urge secession
slide37

HARTFORD CONVENTION

  • With American victories, makes them look like traitors
  • Hartford Resolutions were the end of the Federalist Party for good.
slide38

'BLUE LIGHT' FEDERALISTS

  • Leaders of the Federalist Party that tried to break New England away.
slide39

1812 WAR LEGACY?

  • U.S. gained the respect of other nations
  • U.S. came to accept Canada as a neighbor and a part of the British Empire
  • The Federalist party came to an end as a national force
  • Talk of nullification and secession in New England set a precedent that would later be used by the South
  • Gained our neutrality and became isolated from Europe