cluster 2 anita woolfolk s educational psychology l.
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Cluster 2 Anita Woolfolk’s Educational Psychology. OVERVIEW : Development Piaget Stages of Cognitive Development Vygotsky Language. Development. Types of development? Physical Personal Social Cognitive Maturation Principles of Development different rates orderly gradual.

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cluster 2 anita woolfolk s educational psychology

Cluster 2Anita Woolfolk’s Educational Psychology




Stages of Cognitive Development



  • Types of development?
    • Physical
    • Personal
    • Social
    • Cognitive
    • Maturation
  • Principles of Development
    • different rates
    • orderly
    • gradual
the brain and cognitive development quiz
The Brain and Cognitive DevelopmentQUIZ
  • Identify the areas of the brain that are responsible for the following functions.

a. left hemisphere b. right hemisphere c. Wernick’s area

d. Broca’s area e. auditory cortex f. visual cortex

g. motor cortex

      • _____ receiving language/sound
      • _____ processing language
      • _____ connecting meaning with particular words
      • _____ receiving visual signals
      • _____ setting up grammatically correct ways of expressing an idea
      • _____ processing spatial-visual information
      • _____ handling emotions (non-verbal information)
      • _____ movement on the righ side of the body
piaget s theory of cognitive development
Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development

Thinking processes change radically from birth through

maturity as we are constantly striving to make sense of the

world through 3 basic factors:

1. Biological maturation

2. Activity

3. Social Experience

How do we respond to this?

1. Organization

2. Adaptation-assimilation and accommodation

Equilibration is a balance among organization, assimilation and accommodation

Disequilibration is a failure of a scheme to produce a satisfying result—search will then continue through assimilation and accommodation

piaget cont

Piaget’s 4 Stages of CognitiveDevelopment

Piaget cont…
  • Infancy (0-2)
  • Early Childhood to Elementary (2-7)
  • Later Elementary to Middle School Years (7-11)

4. Junior and Senior High (11-15)

Criteria: Order is fixed

Stage theory not age theory

Old becomes new through modification and expansion

End of one stage is the starting point for the next

piaget s stage 1 infancy the sensorimotor stage
PIAGET’SStage 1-Infancy: The Sensorimotor Stage
  • Age-0-2
  • Thinking involves everything gained through senses and body movements
  • Object permanence is lacking
  • Goal-directed actions

Stage 2- Early Childhood to Elementary Years: Preoperational Stage

  • 2-7 years
  • Difficulty with use of operations-reversible thinking
  • Formation and use of symbols
  • Semiotic functions
  • Collective Monologue
  • Due to lack of reversibility
    • egocentric
    • not able to decenter, calssify. conserve, and seriate
stage 3 later elementary to middle school concrete operational stage
Stage 3-Later Elementary to Middle School: Concrete Operational Stage
  • 7-11 years
  • Complete and logical system of thinking
  • Capable of concrete problem solving and reversibility of operations
    • “Hands-on” thinking
    • conserve matter
    • seriate
    • classify
    • decenter
    • identity
    • compensation
  • Stage 4-Junior and Senior High: Formal Operational Stage
  • Age 11-15 (not all reach this stage)
      • Hypothetico-deductive and inductive reasoning
      • Systematically generate possibilities for given situation
      • consider alternatives
      • adolescent egocentrism
      • not all reach this stage, not necessary for survival
lev vygotsky s sociocultural perspective
Lev Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Perspective
  • Sociocultural Theory
    • Children watch interactions among people in their world, interact with others and make use of these interactions in their own development.

What Vygotsky believed:

-development accomplishments depend as much on the influence of the social and other environments as they do on sheer maturation

-Language is essential for cognitive development

a. through social interaction, language gives learners access

to knowledge others already have

b. language provides learners with cognitive tools that allow

them to think about the world and solve problems

c. language gives us a means to for regulating and reflecting

on our own thinking

vygotsky cont
Vygotsky cont…
  • Cultural Tools
  • Language and Private Speech
    • allows younger children to guide behavior and thinking
    • Transitions to private speech-help solve problems
    • Children using private speech are communicating with themselves
    • Self-regulation

Parent tells child “NO” when in danger

Child says no to another child in the same predicament

Child says no to self

Use of quiet-inner speech to self regulate

Implications of Vygotsky’s Theory for Teachers:

1. Assisted Learning

2. Scaffolding

3. Zone of Proximal Development

4. Collaborative Learning

language development in the school years
Language Development in the School Years
  • Pronunciation- distinctive sounds of a language
    • by first grade most phonemes mastered
    • Intonation-word emphasis may still be problematic
  • Syntax- order of words insentences/phrases
    • early elementary school years
    • elementary-complex grammatical structures first understood, then used
  • Vocabulary and meaning
    • first word spoken, adds up quickly to 10. 20-months approximately 50 words, first sentences can begin at 18 mos., between ages of 2 and 4 children double vocabulary every 6 months
    • average 6 year old has vocabulary of 8,000-14,000 words, 9-11 years, 5000 words added
key differences among piaget and vygotsky

development precedes learning

person must be in a certain stage to grasp certain concepts

development is due primarily to biological growth and efforts to make sense of the world


development and learning influence each other

cognitive development progresses as children learn

emphasized importance of social interaction and child’s culture

Key Differences Among Piaget and Vygotsky