US-Mexican War April 25, 1846-February 2, 1848
Review: what have we learned? • Major aspects of U.S. History 1600-1815 • Major aspects of Latin American History 1600-1815 • Haitian Revolution • Louisiana Purchase in 1803 • Westward Expansion and MANIFEST DESTINY! • Indian Removal Act and the Trail of Tears
Background • In 1821 Stephen Austin arrives in Tejas to start a colony. • Given to his father Moses Austin and authorized by the Mexican government • Mexico had just declared its independence from Spain. • Only 297 families moved to Texas at first. • As more Americans arrived tensions increased between them and the tejanos already living there.
Causes • By 1829 there was a large influx of settlers into Texas territory. • Mexican government decided to reinstate property taxes, increase tariffs and prohibit slavery in the new territory. • The boundary had never officially been settled: the settlers claimed the Rio Grande, while Mexico claimed the Nueces River. • Americans resented Mexican laws and requested that Texas become a self-governing state in Mexico.
Causes Cont… • On March 2, 1836 citizens declared Texas an independent republic. • Mexican president Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna led an army into Texas to put down the rebellion. • Sam Houston became the leader of the Texas troops and Santa Anna is captured at the Battle of San Jacinto. • A treaty is signed which recognizes Texan independence and the Rio Grande as the border.
Remember the Alamo • Pivotal event in the Texas Revolution from February 23-March 6, 1836. • 13 day siege on the Alamo mission by Mexican troops under the command of General Santa Anna. • All of the Texian defenders were killed and word of Santa Anna’s cruelty spread—which inspired many Texans to join the army and fueled the desire for revenge during the Battle of San Jacinto.
Countdown to War • For 10 years Texas was an independent country, but Mexico had a tough time accepting the loss of territory. • Mexico considered Texas still part of Mexico—it was under the temporary rule of a rebel government. • In 1845, the U.S. offered terms of annexation-Mexico stated that this would be the same as an act of war. • Tensions increase and the U.S. moves troops from Corpus Christie to the Rio Grande under the command of General Zachary Taylor
“After reiterated menaces, Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American Soil. She has proclaimed that hostilities have commenced, and that the two nations are at war.” • President James K. Polk • May 11, 1846
The War • In 1846 battles rage in the North. • The bloodiest battle of the war-The Battle of Buena Vista or (La Angostura) was won by the Americans. • In March of 1847, General Winfield Scott’s “Army of Invasion” landed at Vera Cruz, the first step in the ultimate goal of invading Mexico City. • Territory of New Mexico is occupied. • In 1846, the “Conquest of California” begins and the “Bear Flag Republic” is established.
The War Cont…. • Fighting in Central Mexico also continues and on September 8, 1847, Scott’s forces march into Mexico City and raised the American flag. • Fighting continues for several months until a formal treaty can be negotiated. • President Santa Anna is overthrown and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war. • President James K Polk’s goal of expansion was accomplished.
“Our food is abominable; when you break a biscuit, you can see it move (if the critters are not dead from eating bad flour). The pork and bacon are some of the same character. We would not mind this so much, if they would only serve us out enough…if not for the wild beef we shoot, we should starve”. • U.S. soldier • Camp Belknap, Texas 1846
Effects/Results • President Santa Anna is overthrown and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the war. • Texas was now officially part of the U.S. as was California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming. • In return, the U.S. would pay Mexico $15 million in return. • A strip of land for the transcontinental railroad was purchased in the Gadsden Purchase for $10 million. • America now stretched from “sea to shining sea”.
Why does it matter? • 8,500 U.S. troops were killed, but the military won nearly every engagement. Many more died from disease. • Mexico lost tens of thousands of soldiers and civilians, destruction in cities and shattered a sense of national pride and dignity. • “the American Intervention” • Mexico was stripped of almost ½ of it’s land-the $15million paid did not come close to compensation. • California is opened to settlers and the Gold Rush begins in 1849. • Often times this war is overlooked due to it’s proximity to the Civil War.