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PSY 369: Psycholinguistics

PSY 369: Psycholinguistics. Cognitive Psychology Day 2. What is “psycholinguistics”?. Mental Processes Short Term Memory Long Term Memory Encoding Retrieval Mental Representations. The study of language. from a psychological perspective. Psycho. Linguistics. Linguistic Theory

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PSY 369: Psycholinguistics

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  1. PSY 369: Psycholinguistics Cognitive Psychology Day 2

  2. What is “psycholinguistics”? Mental Processes • Short Term Memory • Long Term Memory • Encoding • Retrieval • Mental Representations The study of language from a psychological perspective. Psycho Linguistics Linguistic Theory • Phonology • Morphology • Syntax • Semantics • - Rules

  3. The ‘standard model’ The Multistore Model

  4. Long term memory • Properties • Capacity: Unlimited? • Duration: Decay/interference, retrieval difficulty • Organization • Multiple subsystems for type of memory • Associative networks (more on these next week)

  5. Long term memory: Capacity • How much can we remember? • Lots, no known limits to how much memory storage we have. • More important issue concerns questions about encoding and retrieval • Encoding - getting memories into LTM what gets in? • Rehearsal • Depth of processing – organization, distinctiveness, effort, elaboration • Retrieval - getting memories out of LTM what gets out? exact memories or reconstructed memories?

  6. Long term memory: Duration • How long do our memories last? • Ebbinghaus (1885/1913) • He memorized non-sense syllables. • Memorize them until perfect performance, • Test to relearn the lists perfectly. • This was called the "savings."

  7. Long term memory: Duration • Bahrick (1984) • He has done a number of studies asking people about memories for things (e.g., Spanish, faces of classmates, etc.) that they learned over 50 years past. He has found evidence that at least some memories stick around a really long time. • How long do our memories last?

  8. Long term memory: Organization The Multiple Memory Stores Theory • This theory suggests that there are different memory components, each storing different kinds of information. • Declarative • episodic- memories about events • semantic- knowledge of facts • Procedural- memories about how to do things (e.g., the thing that makes you improve at riding a bike with practice. Declarative • episodic • semantic Procedural

  9. Long term memory • How is semantic memory structured? • Networks (more next week)

  10. Limited capacity resource • Filtering capabilities • Integration function Attention • Major tool of the central executive

  11. Attention: Limited resource • Only have so much ‘energy’ to make things go, so need to divide it and allocate it to processes • Single pool (e.g., Kahneman, 1973) • Central bank of resources available to all tasks that need it • Multiple pools (e.g., Navon & Gopher, 1979) • Several banks of specialized resources – divided up in terms of input/output modalities, stages of info processing (perception, memory, response output) • Dual task experiments

  12. Attention: An information filter • Information bottleneck. There is so much info, only some is let through, while the rest is filtered out • Early selection (e.g., Broadbent, 1958, Triesman, 1964) • Late filters (Deutsch & Deutsch) • Everything gets in, bottleneck comes at response level (can only respond to limited number of things) • Cocktail party effect, dichotic listening

  13. Attention: Integration • Attention is used to ‘glue’ features together • Feature integration theory & Visual search exps Where’s Waldo Find the X X X X X X X X X X X Pop out X X X X X O O X X O O Slow search X O O X X X O O X

  14. Attention: How do we control it? • Attention as a ‘spotlight’ • Move it around

  15. Attention: How do we control it? • Attention as a ‘spotlight’ • Move it around, make it focused or diffuse

  16. Attention: How do we control it? • Attention as a ‘spotlight’ • Move it around, make it focused or diffuse • Is it ‘aimed’ or ‘pulled’

  17. Automaticity • Controlled processes • Require resources • Under some volitional direction • Slow, effortful • Automatic processes • Require little attention • Obligatory • Fast

  18. Stages of skill acquisition • Stages of skill acquisition • Cognitive stage • Establish declarative encoding of an action • Associative stage • Strengthen the connections between elements of the skill • Autonomous stage • Skills can be performed without interference form other activities

  19. Bottom-up & Top-down • Terms come from computer science • Bottom up (data driven) relies upon evidence that is physically present, building larger units based on smaller ones • Top down (knowledge driven), using higher-level information to support lower-level processes

  20. Bottom-up & Top-down Selfridge’s Pandemonium system, 1959

  21. C T Bottom-up & Top-down

  22. T E Bottom-up & Top-down

  23. C T T E Bottom-up & Top-down

  24. Bottom-up & Top-down FROG

  25. Bottom-up & Top-down FROG

  26. Bottom-up & Top-down Half the class close your eyes Title: Doing laundry

  27. Bottom-up & Top-down Half the class close your eyes Read story Rate how comprehensible the story is 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 hard to easy to understand understand

  28. Summing up • Psycholinguistic view • Language and cognition are inextricably linked • Notice that almost all of the experiment demonstrations involved language elements as stimuli

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