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Pauline Interpretation of Christianity: ROMANS Tuesday April 5

Pauline Interpretation of Christianity: ROMANS Tuesday April 5

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Pauline Interpretation of Christianity: ROMANS Tuesday April 5

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  1. Pauline Interpretation of Christianity:ROMANSTuesday April 5

  2. Today’s Schedule • 4:10-5:15 Apocalyptic/Messianic interpretation: 1 Thessalonians and Romans Web, Patte, Paul’s Faith and the Power of the Gospel, [[122-154 &]] 232-295 • 5:15-6:30 •  JULIANNE SNAPE On ch. 12 • STEPHEN STAGGS On ch. 12

  3.  JULIANNE SNAPE Rom 12, -“Offering Ourselves to God” • Formal Respondent: Arden Henderson • Other Respondents: • Karney Carney • Madeleine St Marie • Jonathan Baynham • Amy Lentz • Derek Axelson

  4. STEPHEN STAGGS Rom 12, Darkened Mind Transformations • Formal Respondent: Jeremy Snow • Other Respondents: • Julie Carli • Ross Stackhouse • Jason Jones • Murielle Wyman • Iris Ankrom

  5. Next Week Romans 13 • JULIE CARLI • Respondent: • Murielle Wyman • MADELEINE ST.MARIE • Respondent: • Jason Jones

  6. Galatians 1:3-4(Review) • “Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ, 4 who gave himself for our sins to set us free from the present evil age, according to the will of our God and Father” • “Christ died for our sins” = he died to “set us free” (NRSV) or “rescue us” (NIV, NAB) or “deliver us” (KJB) from the present evil age • When? In the PRESENT.

  7. Gospel = Freedom from bondage to idols. Which Idols? (Review) • Galatians 4:8 Formerly, when you did not know God, you were enslaved to beings that by nature are not gods. • Hellenistic religions as Idols • “The Other Gospel” which is not a Gospel = idolatry: 4:9 :how can you turn back again to the weak and beggarly elemental spirits?How can you want to be enslaved to them again? • Surprisingly: 4:3-5 So with us; while we were minors, we were enslaved to the elemental spirits of the world. 4 But when the fullness of time had come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, 5 in order to redeem those who were under the law, so that we might receive adoption as children. • Paul equates his formerPharisaic Convictions with an idolatry (enslaved to the elemental spirits of the world) • 5:1 For freedom Christ has set us free. Stand firm, therefore, and do not submit again to a yoke of slavery.

  8. What is Idolatry for Paul? (Review) Pagans as typical sinners/idolaters • Romans 1:18 18 For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and wickedness of those who by their wickedness suppress the truth. 19 For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. 20 Ever since the creation of the world his eternal power and divine nature, invisible though they are, have been understood and seen through the things he has made….Cosmological revelation

  9. What is Idolatry for Paul? (Review) Pagans as typical sinners/idolaters • Romans 1:32 They know God's decree, that those who practice such things deserve to die-- yet they not only do them but even applaud others who practice them. (Cosmological/natural distinction between good and evil)

  10. What is Idolatry for Paul?Pagans as typical sinners/idolaters • Rom 1:21 So they are without excuse; 21 for though they knew God, they did not honor him as God or give thanks to him, but they became futile in their thinking, and their senseless minds were darkened. 22 Claiming to be wise, they became fools; 23 and they exchanged the glory of the immortal God for images resembling a mortal human being or birds or four-footed animals or reptiles. • 24 Therefore God gave them up in the lusts of their hearts to impurity, to the degrading of their bodies among themselves …. 26 For this reason God gave them up to degrading passions. 28 God gave them up to a debased mind and to things that should not be done. 29 They were filled with every kind of wickedness, evil,

  11. What is Idolatry for Paul? (Review) Pagans as typical sinners/idolaters

  12. Idols are not… (Review) • Idols are NOT the absolutization of something worthless! • Idolatry is not worshipping a stone or piece of wood. • Idolaters are not stupid! • Idols have power because the idolaters know that the revelations upon which they are built are TRUE, and holy, Just and good

  13. Gospel = Freedom from bondage to idols does NOT mean • Freedom from idolatry does NOT involve rejecting the true revelation that was absolutized and trapped in the idol • This is what happens when one makes another idol by taking another revelation to be a complete and final • so much so that one does not need the true revelation trapped into the idolatry

  14. The true revelations trapped in idols remain true revelations • These revelations must be freed from bondage • Creation remains a much needed revelation of God’s“eternal power and divine nature” = creation wait for its freedom from bondage (8:19-21) • Torah remains a much needed revelation of God’scovenants, etc. = waits for its freedom from bondage

  15. What is Idolatry for Paul? (Review) Paul the Jew as typical sinner/idolater • Romans 7:6-12 7 What then should we say? That the law is sin? By no means! 12 So the law is holy, and the commandment is holy and just and good.

  16. What is Idolatry for Paul? (Review) Paul the Jew as typical sinner/idolater • Romans 7:7-11 What then should we say? That the law is sin? By no means! Yet, if it had not been for the law, I would not have known sin. I would not have known what it is to covet evpiqumi,a [desire] I f the law had not said, "You shall not covet." Ouvk evpiqumh,seijÅ[not desire] 8 But sin, seizing an opportunity in the commandment, produced in me all kinds of covetousness. evpiqumi,a[desire] Apart from the law sin lies dead. 9 I was once alive apart from the law, but when the commandment came, sin revived 10 and I died, and the very commandment that promised life proved to be death to me. 11 For sin, seizing an opportunity in the commandment, deceived me and through it killed me.

  17. What is Idolatry for Paul? (Review) Paul the Jew as typical sinner/idolater

  18. What is Idolatry for Paul? (Review) Paul the Jew as typical sinner/idolater • Romans 7:12-13 So the law is holy, and the commandment is holy and just and good. 13 Did what is good, then, bring death to me? By no means! It was sin, working death in me through what is good, in order that sin might be shown to be sin, [= desire]and through the commandment might become sinful beyond measure. • = desire leads to absolutization of that which is not absolute … some thing GOOD = a revelation from God; Holy, Just, and Good… • But NOT complete and final revelation

  19. What is Idolatry for Paul?Paul the Jew as typical sinner/idolater • Romans 7:15-23 I do not understand my own actions. For I do not do what I want, but I do the very thing I hate. 16 Now if I do what I do not want, I agree that the law is good. 17 But in fact it is no longer I that do it, but sin that dwells within me. 18 … can will what is right, but I cannot do it. 19 For I do not do the good I want, but the evil I do not want is what I do. • 21 So I find it to be a law that when I want to do what is good, evil lies close at hand. 22 For I delight in the law of God in my inmost self, 23 but I see in my members another law at war with the law of my mind, making me captive to the law of sin that dwells in my members.

  20. Idol… whatever(including the Gospel) might be the “good thing” that we absolutize

  21. Christ destroying The power of the Idol… whatever it might be • Romans 8:2-3 2 For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus has set you free from the law of sin and of death. 3 For God has done what the law, weakened by the flesh, could not do: by sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh, and to deal with sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, • 2 Corinthians 5:20 So we are ambassadors for Christ, since God is making his appeal through us; we entreat you on behalf of Christ, be reconciled to God. 21 For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.

  22. Christ destroying the power of the idolcondemning sin in the flesh

  23. The power of bondage of the idol implodes with the power of the Gospel • “sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh,according to sin, he condemned sin in the flesh” Rom 8:3 • “manifested Son of God with power according to the spirit of holiness by resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord, 5 through whom we have received grace and apostleship” 1:4-5 • “the gospel is the power of God for salvation to everyone who has faith, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. 17 For in it the righteousness of God is revealed from faith to faith evkpi,stewjeivjpi,stin1:16-17

  24. F/T: Resurrection = not abandoned by God = Vindicated by God • Glorified, with God • Î • I • life I [[ …………life ………..]] Raised from death • = not abandoned by God • I I • I________Death_________ I • Rom 1:4 “manifested Son of God with power according to the spirit of holiness by resurrection from the dead” • = proof that Christ’s death is meaningful; he died for us, for our sins

  25. NC/P Resurrection = Christ at the right hand of God, Sharing God’s Power • __ at the right hand of God; has Power • I • Î • Life ………[[life]]…………………. Raised from death • I I • I_____Death_________I • “manifested Son of God with power according to the spirit of holiness by resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord, through whom we have received grace and apostleship” • Christ, now with power (at the right of God), call believers (Paul “calledto be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God” & Romans “calledto be saints” (1:1, 7) to participate in the ministry of the Gospel, “in order that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy” (15-9)

  26. A/M Resurrection = back with us in life; defeating powers of evil • __ at the right hand of God__ • I | • Î I • Life ……… Raised from death …………. Parousia: • | | back with us in life • | | When? Ongoing! • I | since the Resurrection • I__ Death _ I • “manifested Son of God with power according to the spirit of holiness by resurrection from the dead, Jesus Christ our Lord, through whom we have received grace and apostleship” 1:4-5 • 1 Corinthians 15:24 “Then comes the end, when he hands over the kingdom to God the Father, after he has destroyed every ruler and every authority and power”. = what the risen Christ is doing now • Christ is alive, acting in our midst, defeating the powers of evil NOW

  27. A/M The Crucified Jesus is the One whom believers should recognize as the true authority/power now at work in their present as the Resurrected Christ • Χριστος Ανεστη! Christ Is Risen! = Christ is alive and kicking • Faith in the resurrection is NOT a “believing that” = a belief about what happened 2000 years ago and what will happen in the eschatological future • an impossible belief, because it is necessarily nebulous.  • Rather faith in the resurrection is a hope solidly grounded in present reality, in the believers’ present experience of transforming, freeing, loving manifestations of the Resurrected One ...   • of which believers are the beneficiaries, sometimes.  • But also, and especially and primarily, manifestations of the Resurrected One which believers can recognize (through the CORRECTIVE GLASSES OF SCRIPTURE) when others, around them, are transformed, freed, loved and loving in the very heart of situations of need, when they should have been crushed by suffering, grief, and oppressions of all kinds.  

  28. A/M The Body of Christ (12:1-One whom believers should recognize as the true authority/power now at work in their present as the Resurrected Christ • The body of Christ (12:5 “we, who are many, are one body in Christ”) are Christ-for-other people • = playing the same role as Christ. How? • By being Christ-crucified for others: “present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship” 12:1 • How? By entering the world of others... The idolatrous world of others = always idolatrous (because we are human). And when in this idolatrous world: • “Do not be conformed to this world” (12:2) • Not conforming to this world = not serving the idolatry of this world • NOT SINNING as Christ did not sin = NOT serving idols!!!

  29. A/M The Body of Christ (12:1-One whom believers should recognize as the true authority/power now at work in their present as the Resurrected Christ • The body of Christ are Christ-for-other people • Not conforming to this world = not sinning = not serving the idolatry of this world. • HOW? • By being “transformed by the renewing of your minds, so that you may discern what is the will of God-- what is good and acceptable and perfect.” (12:2) • = recognizing what is the true revelation, the true gift from God, that people in this world have transformed into an idol. SO AS TO AFFIRM IT = NOT rejecting (throwing away) ALL of this world = as if everything was wrong in this idolatry • Christ and Culture in Paradox (in H. Richard Niebuhr, Christ and Culture, categories) The Church is in the world, though it is not of the world • Christ & the body of Christ can affirm a part of the culture –there is something in the culture which is good and acceptable and perfect -- • But must reject another part of culture which is oppressive, unacceptable, and evil = the idolatrous part of culture.

  30. Faith for Apocalyptic Reading • Faith = seeing, recognizing, discerning the manifestations of God, and submitting to their authority/power • Recognizing positive (partial) revelations from God (in bondages in their idols) • in Creation • in Torah • in whatever is good and acceptable and perfect in the (idolatrous) world. [without conforming to this idolatrous word • In the Roman Imperial authority (and its idolatry)

  31. Faith = involves Recognizing positive (partial) revelations from God (in bondages in their idols) • Romans 12:2 Do not be conformed to this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your minds, so that you may discern what is the will of God-- what is good and acceptable and perfect. • Romans 13:1 Let every person be subject to the governing authorities; for there is no authority except from God, and those authorities that exist have been instituted by God. • Romans 1:14 I am indebtedto [= I received revelation from God from] both Greeks and barbarians, both the wise and the foolish

  32. Faith for Apocalyptic Reading • Faith = Recognizing positive (partial) revelations from God • in the idols made our of the good gifts from God in Creation, Torah, the world, by Greek and barbarians, educated and uneducated • Recognizing iconoclastic(partial) revelations from God • In Christ … crucified, cursed by the Law, sinning against sin AND manifested Son of God by resurrection from the dead, • And in Christ-like people (those “ïn Christ” ; the “body of Christ”)

  33. In Christ … crucified, cursed by the Law, sinning against sin AND manifested Son of God • Galatians 3:13-14 Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law by becoming a curse for us-- for it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on a tree"-- 14 in order that in Christ Jesus the blessing of Abraham might come to the Gentiles, so that we might receive the promise of the Spirit through faith.

  34. Recognizing iconoclastic (partial) revelations from God • 1 Thessalonians 1:1 Paul, Silvanus, and Timothy, To the church of the Thessalonians in God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace to you and peace. • 2 We always give thanks to God for all of you and mention you in our prayers, constantly 3 remembering before our God and Father your work of faith and labor of love and steadfastness of hope in our Lord Jesus Christ.

  35. Recognizing iconoclastic (partial) revelations from God: 1 Thess • 1:4 For we know, brothers and sisters beloved by God, that God has chosen you, • 5 because our message of the gospel came to you not in word only, but also in power and in the Holy Spirit[MANIFESTIONS OF GOD] and with full conviction; • 6 And you became imitators of us and of the Lord, for in spite of persecution you received the word with joy inspired by the Holy Spirit,

  36. Recognizing iconoclastic (partial) revelations from God: 1 Thess • 1:7 so that you became an example ( a type) to all the believers in Macedonia and in Achaia. …. • 9 [others] report what kind of welcome we had among you, and how you turned to God from idols, to serve a living and true God, 10 and to wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead-- Jesus, who rescues us from the wrath that is coming.

  37. Next week 3 Characteristics of Paul’s Faith for Apocalyptic Reading • Paul’s Faith as • A Radical Charismatic Faith= a divine gift and belief in God’s gifts today to EVERY BELIEVERS (recognize the measure of each of our faith) – not hierarchy; free climbers • An Eschatological Faith = seeing God at work in the end-of-time = today • A Typological Faith = recognizing these interventions of God, because they are of the same type (fulfillments) of God’s previous interventions (in Jesus, HB, etc.) • And how the three work together

  38. I appeal to you by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice (12:1-2 & 15) • Forensic/Theological:I exhort/admonish you, demand from you … that, as a response to God’s forgiveness (mercies) • You sacrifice yourself for God and others; • This is God’s will that the believer should implement • in imitation of Christ (as ethical “model”) who sacrificed himself for us on the cross; • demanding that one separates oneself from the world (not conforming to the world); • Note: = a duty for individual Christians, so I use the singular (Greek is plural)

  39. I appeal to you by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice (12:1-2 & 15) • Covenantal/Pastoral:I call you to join us to carry out the mission of God (= the mercies of God) • Parakalw/ "calling to one's side," • Carrying out this mission necessarily involves risks – it is offering ourselves as sacrifice • Because a life in faith communities characterized by love and justice, • avoiding “worldly behavior,” honor/shame system that engenders competition with others that generates injustice and oppression

  40. I appeal to you by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice (12:1-2 & 15) • Apocalyptic/Messianic:I encourage and comfort you • Parakalw/ “comforting, encouraging," • Reminding you that God’s mercies (= “what is good, acceptable, perfect” 12:2) are manifested around you • Encouraging you to discern God’s mercies and to join God’s on-going liberating action • Freeing others from bondage to sin and idolatry, as Christ did • = refusing to serve the idols, • thus idolaters will persecute you, crucify you, • a sacrifice through which (some) of the idolaters will be saved (freed from their idolatry)

  41. Romans 12:5 we, who are many, are one body in Christ, • Romans 12:3-7 I say to everyone among you not to think of yourself more highly than you ought to think, but to think with sober judgment, each accordingto the measure of faith that God has assigned. e`ka,stw| w`j o` qeo.j evme,risen me,tron pi,stewjÅ • 4 For as in one body we have many members, and not all the members have the same function, 5 so we, who are many, are one body in Christ, and individually we are members one of another. 6 We have gifts that differ according to the grace given to us: prophecy, in proportion to faith; kata. th.n avnalogi,an th/j pi,stewj 7 ministry, in ministering; the teacher, in teaching; 8 the exhorter, in exhortation; the giver, in generosity; the leader, in diligence; the compassionate, in cheerfulness.

  42. Romans 12:3-8 we, who are many, are one body in Christ, • Forensic/Theological: Exhortation to participate humbly in the body of Christ, • To have a loving relationship with others (12:9) • using for others the gifts one has received from God (12:4-8); • imitating God’s/Christ love for us; • in the same way that God loved/loves us even if we are not worthy of God’s love; so we should love others, whatever might be their attitude toward us

  43. Romans 12:3-8 we, who are many, are one body in Christ, • Covenantal/Pastoral: Being called to be ONE body of Christ, • Being this inclusive people of God is an integral part of its mission • This community life manifests/exemplifies God’s love and thus God’s justice for the rest of society • by acknowledging the “gifts” that others have, and affirming them as “gifts from God” that you do not have, and that you must receive through other members of the community (12:4-8);

  44. Romans 12:3-8 we, who are many, are one body in Christ, • Apocalyptic/Messianic: Encouragement to discern the body of Christ (12:3-10) • by acknowledging the “gifts” that other members of the community received, and affirming them as “gifts from God” that you do not have, and that you must receive through others (12:4-8). • = “not to think of yourself more highly than you ought to think” (12:3) • = acknowledging others as worthy of “honor” (12:10) because they are bearers of gifts of God for you (12:4-8) • = “genuine love” (12:9), = considering others as better than yourself, precisely as you consider Christ (they are part of the body of Christ)

  45. Pondering your leader’s THEME and PASSAGE in Romans; • what would be different in the teaching of this passage on this theme for your own context • List and explain these differences--which should become clearer as you progress in the understanding of your own THEME and PASSAGE. • The point is to help your leader recognize other plausible interpretations of the same text and its theme... how changing context helps see other things in the text • You might or might not have the same overall perspective (Forensic/Theological; Covenantal/Pastoral; or Apocalyptic/Messianic) as your leader. • same perspective: how is her/his theme complement your own? • different perspective: how is her/his theme in tension with your own? How would you understand her/his theme from YOUR different perspective?a\

  46.  JULIANNE SNAPE Rom 12, -“Offering Ourselves to God” • Formal Respondent: Arden Henderson • Other Respondents: • Karney Carney • Madeleine St Marie • Jonathan Baynham • Amy Lentz • Derek Axelson

  47. STEPHEN STAGGS Rom 12, Darkened Mind Transformations • Formal Respondent: Jeremy Snow • Other Respondents: • Julie Carli • Ross Stackhouse • Jason Jones • Murielle Wyman • Iris Ankrom

  48. Forensic/Theological Interpretation: Slave (in 1:1; 6:16-23) • F/T  Slave: Someone who unconditionally submits to the will and authority of a master.  Like the OT figures: total, humble submission to God’s will;  • Slave of sin =  due to lack of the proper teaching (knowledge) and will.   Paul speaks  of a “willful slavery” that can be voluntarily shifted from one master to another by individual believers.  • 6:16-23: “obedient slaves” (6:16) = one who freely and voluntarily chose to submit to a master (sin or righteousness) • How does one conceive of a “voluntary slavery”?  It is the most difficult interpretation • But not impossible = one reads the “you” [plural in Greek] as referring to a [singular] individual or a bunch of individuals. • F/T interpretation of many people in Western, Enlightenment cultures, especially of people who feel in control of their lives.

  49. New Covenantal/Pastoral Interpretation: Slave (in 1:1; 6:16-23) • NC/P  Slave = Someone who, although in a low status, is a member of a household as a socio-economic unit, and who, as a servant, acts in the name of his/her master for the sake of the household; Someone totally defined by his/her mission in the name of a master and for the sake of the household.  • “Obedience” = Accepting one’s mission and carrying it out • Like the OT figures who accept a special role given to them by God who has chosen them for a special mission and sends them to speak and act in God’s name.  • A connotation further suggested, for the Romans, by the phrase “slave of Christ” (1:1) that brings to mind “slaves of Caesar” = slaves of the household of Caesar, acting in the name of and with the authority of Caesar [Jewett] • In 6:16-23: The metaphors “slavery to sin” and ‘Slavery to righteousness/justice” brings to mind the image of a group of people (plural “you”) under the power of a master who escaped to take refuge under the protection and at the service of another master. 

  50. Apocalyptic/Messianic Interpretation: Slave (in 1:1; 6:16-23) • A/M  Slave:  Someone who is owned by a master, thus in bondage, totally at the mercy of this master; Slave = worthless, powerless, in an abject situation, with a shameful status.  • “Obedience” = involuntary; submission to a master = acknowledging that one is powerless in view of the superior power of the master  • Like the OT figures as“an instrument” through whom God acts, with a prophetic function, despite the unworthiness and lack of ability of that person—a connotation further suggested, for the Romans, by the phrase “slave of Christ” (1:1) that brings to mind “slaves of Caesar” = people upon whom Caesar has life and death power and who are instruments through whom Caesar acts