it is not difficult to provide education for all efa by 2015 indra yamphu n.
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IT IS NOT DIFFICULT TO PROVIDE EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) BY 2015 - Indra Yamphu. The EFA Context Campaign from World Conference of Jomtein in 1990 World Education Forum on EFA, in Dakar in 2000, adopted Dakar Framework of Action with six goals

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it is not difficult to provide education for all efa by 2015 indra yamphu
IT IS NOT DIFFICULT TO PROVIDE EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA) BY 2015 -IndraYamphu

The EFA Context

  • Campaign from World Conference of Jomtein in 1990
  • World Education Forum on EFA, in Dakar in 2000, adopted Dakar Framework of Action with six goals
  • universal primary education and gender equity affirmed by MDGs
  • Nepal has committed to achieve these international commitments
  • Efforts have been made on achieving the goals through SSRP
  • attempted to see the status and trends of student participation on indicators of NER, NIR, SR, and DR in primary level
national and international policy ground
National and International Policy Ground
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, ICESCR1966, and CRC 1990-primary education compulsory and available free to all, accessibility, regular attendance and dropout reduction
  • Interim Constitution, 2007 –free but not compulsory
  • Education Act 1971- free primary education and free textbooks
  • EFA-NPA(2001-2015)- education free of cost to increase access
  • SSRP (2009-2015)- free basic education with cost free service for admission, textbooks, tuition, and examinations
  • Local Self-Governance Act, 1999 and CFLG-programs for child protection, promotion, and development
analysis and interpretation
Analysis and Interpretation
  • NER was quite higher up to 2009 and afterward it dropped and still 4.7% [NLSS (2011)-23.8%] stdnts are out of school-unlikely to achieve in 2 yrs
  • NIR has descended after 2011, difficult to achieve 9% gap in two yrs
  • SR-fluctuated and plunged after 2011, 16% gap is difficult to fulfill
  • Progress in reducing dropouts, but still existing five out of hundred
  • Progress of participation seems lesser in the later years than before 2009/11. Gaps to be achieved in two yrs are wider than achievements of past two years
  • Cent percent participation and cycle completion seems difficult
  • Has become challenging to meet the EFA goal
underlying causes
Underlying Causes
  • Affirmative actions-Female teachers, scholarship, free textbook, and tiffin
  • Primary school nutrition program -increase enrollment rate and decrease the dropout rate by distribution of lunch and edible oil (NPC, 2012), ECD
  • The “hard core poorest groups” (Wagley, September 30, 2013, The Himalayan Times) are still unable to enrol or survive and dropping out
  • Major Reasons-poor economic condition and household chores, socio-cultural beliefs and tradition and parents’ unwillingness and ignorance (DoE, 2012), abuses, exploitation, and violation (LWF, 2012)
  • disabilities and disabled friendly school environment , corporal punishment, medium of instruction and failure in exit exam (DoE, 2012)
way forward
Way Forward
  • Enhance Affirmative Actions-Scholarships, female teachers and so on
  • pay opportunity cost to parents creating a fund (Wagley, 2013), awareness
  • promoting disability friendly school environment, reducing punishment, effective implementation of MLE and CAS for LPP
  • General Incentive Model-goods, cash, service, promotion (www.usaid.gov)
  • Coordination bet MoE and MLD for core groups as CFLG & LSGA
  • Rs.52.64 billion, DPs share was Rs.13.446 billion on SSRP for 2011/12- ADB-$ 65 million (MoE, 2013), European Union Rs. 4.8 billion for SSRP
  • Gov. is to introduce 'ordinance' on 'Free and Compulsory Ed.' to punish parents and SMCs-Rs.500 to Rs.5000 and Bill for amending Ed. Act-2011