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MAGNETOMETR Y Theoretical and experimental research. Baltag Octavian Ioan. Ligns of force of the geomagnetic field (Glatzmaier et Roberts, 1995). http://paleomag.uqar.ca/spip.php?article44. 1971 B.Sc. in Physics - specialized in Electroradiophysics "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi

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magnetometr y theoretical and experimental research
MAGNETOMETRY

Theoretical and experimental research

Baltag Octavian Ioan

Ligns of force of the geomagnetic field (Glatzmaier et Roberts, 1995). http://paleomag.uqar.ca/spip.php?article44

slide2

1971 B.Sc. in Physics - specialized in Electroradiophysics "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University of Iasi

1982 Ph.D. with a thesis entitled "Contributions to development of low magnetic fields magnetometers"

Central Institute of Physics - Bucuresti

theoretical and applicative resarch in magnetometry directions 1971 2001
THEORETICAL AND APPLICATIVE RESARCH IN MAGNETOMETRY DIRECTIONS 1971 - 2001

MAGNETOMETRY

Space applications

Marine applications and naval degaussing

Terrestrial – special applications

Laboratory – research & industry

MAGNETIC DETECTION

Magnetic naval and terrestrial mines

Industrial applications -buried metallic bodies

METROLOGY,

TRANSDUCERS & SPECIAL DEVICES

PROTECTION OF INTELECTUAL & INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY

Patents

Trademarks

ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY

  • Special applications
  • Research & industry
slide4

RESEARCH DOMAIN 2001 - 2008

HIGH RESOLUTION MAGNETOMETRY

  • Biomedical applications

MICROWAVE RADIOMETRY

  • Microwave Thermografy – early detection of the breast cancer
magnetometry

Hex

Hex

Iex

h

U2f

h + Hex

h - Hex

h

h

ferrofluid

h

Hex

Iex

U2f

h

I ex

h

Iex

h

U2f

MAGNETOMETRY
  • Theoretical & experimental research on the fluxgate transducers for low magnetic field
fluxgate diagram

B

B

+Bs

H

t

-Bs

d/dt

H=H0sint

h=0

h>0

t

h>0

H

U2f

t

Core I

Core II

t

Fluxgate diagram
results and applications
RESULTS AND APPLICATIONS
  • Research on the fluxgate transducers & magnetometer electronics –applications forIntercosmos satellites
  • Technical data:
  • range: +/- 80.000 nT
  • frequency of pulse excitation: 2 kHz,
  • second harmonic: 4 kHz
  • noise: < 1 nT
  • nonlinearity : < 1%
  • applications: triaxial magnetometer for Intercosmos satellites
fluxgate with multiple path of flux patent ro nr 60 346 int cl g01r33 00
FLUXGATE WITH MULTIPLE PATH OF FLUXpatent RO, nr. 60.346, Int. Cl. G01R33/00
  • Fluxgate sensor with multiple path of flux, O. Baltag, D. Costandache„ “Studies in applied electromagnetics and mechanics”, vol.13, pp.337-340, 1998, Editor: V. Kose, J. Sievert, IOS Press- Amsterdam, ISSN: 1383-7281
  • Specifications:
  • Measuring range: +/- 200.000nT
  • noise: < 1 nT
  • excitation: pulse
  • liniarity: < 1%

Core: permalloyprocessed by photogravure, trated in hidrogen, coil support: noriland cuartz powder

nonlinear resonance phenomena in fluxgate
NONLINEAR RESONANCE PHENOMENA IN FLUXGATE

Fluxgate transfer characteristic in nonlinear resonance regime

  • Specific phenomena:
  • In certain operation conditions the fluxgate transducer no longer works as a magnetic field sensor and it is generating an almost quasisinusoidal signal with a frequency equal to the odd or even harmonics of the excitation signal
  • The second harmonic phase can only be changed (with 180°) by applying a continuous or alternative magnetic field exceeding the threshold value characteristic to the regime.
slide11

Fluxgate – nonlinear resonance

Transfer characteristic U2ω = f (h) of the fluxgate in second harmonic resonance regime

U2f second harmonic amplitude

H external magnetic field

Uex excitation voltage

f excitation frequency

  • Hysteresis response to applied field of the fluxgate on second harmonic:
  • UQ second harmonic quadrature component
  • US second harmonic, sinphasic component
  • UA second harmonic amplitude
  • H external magnetic field
nonlinear resonance applications
Nonlinear resonance - Applications
  • Double pumping magnetometer and measuring method, patent Ro, No. 67520, Int. Cl. G01R33/02
  • Functional instability of ferromagnetic sensor in nonlinear resonance regime, digest, INTERMAG 96, Seattle, 1996
  • Pecularities of the fluxgate responses in the parametric resonance regime, O. Baltag, D. Costandache, Sensors Letters, Vol. 7, No.3, pp. 276–277 (2009)

Excitation frequency f=2000Hz: first pumping frequency

External magnetic field frequency F=200Hz: second pumping frequency

double pumping magnetometer patent ro no 67520 int cl g01r33 02
DOUBLE PUMPING MAGNETOMETERPatent RO, no. 67520, Int. Cl. G01R33/02

Fluxgate responses U2f (second harmonic 2f) at second pumping field F=200Hz, and measuring field Ho

Second harmonic U2f of the fluxgate modulated in amplitude by second pumping field with frequency F=200Hz

  • Functional characteristics:
  • first pumping frequency(fluxgate excitation): f=2 kHz
  • second pumping frequency: F=200 Hz
  • noise: < 0,1 nT
  • measuring range: +/- 200.000 nT
ferrofluid fluxgate trans d ucer
FERROFLUID FLUXGATE TRANSDUCER
  • Behaviour of some nonlinear devices with ferrofluid, O. Baltag, D. Costandache, C. Cotae, JMMM, vol. 157 , pp. 591,1996
  • Magnetometer with ferrofluid sensor, Baltag O., D.Costandache, IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Technology Conference IMTC 96, Brussels, 1996, pp.263-265, ISBN: 0-7803-3312-8, IEEE Xplore, INSPEC Number: 5391810
  • Sensor with ferrofluid for magnetic measurements, O. Baltag, D. Costandache, IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 46, nr.2, pp. 629-631, 1997
  • Nonlinear behaviour of the ferrofluid in orthogonal magnetic fields, O. Baltag, D. Costandache, JMMM, 201, pp.123-125, 1999
  • The study of a magnetic fluid based sensor, C. Cotae, O. Baltag, R.Olaru, D.Calarasu, D.Costandache, JMMM, 201, pp.393-397, 1999
  • Sensor with ferrofluid for magnetic measurements, O. Baltag, D. Costandache, Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Braunschweigh, June 1996, CPEM-96, pp.61-62, ISBN: 0-7803-3376-4
ferrite fluxgate
FERRITE FLUXGATE
  • Gaussmeter, O.Baltag, D. Costandache, IEEE Proceedings of the International Symposium on Signal, Circuits & Systems, Iasi 1995, pp. 473
  • Magnetic field measurement with soft ferrite cored sensors, Baltag O., D. Costandache, 7-th, International Conference on Ferrites, Bordeaux,1996
  • Toroidal Fluxgate Sensor Compared in Dynamic Preisach Framework, Salceanu A., Baltag O., Costandache D., The 7-th European Magnetic Materials and Applications Conference, EMMA ‚98, Zaragoza, Spain, pp. 248
amorphous and nanochristaline fluxgate
AMORPHOUS AND NANOCHRISTALINE FLUXGATE
  • Preisach approach for modelling an amorphous toroidal fluxgate sensor, A. Salceanu, O. Baltag, D.Costandache,

Sensor and Actuators, A, vol. 81, pp.207-211,

1999, ISSN: 0925-4005

  • Study of a magnetic field sensor with nanocrystalline materials, Salceanu A., Baltag O., et all, Bul.Inst.Politehnic Iaşi, Tom XLV (IL), Fasc.5A, pp.381-384, 1999, ISSN 0258-9109
  • Fluxgate sensor with nanocrystaline ferromagnetic core, Baltag O., M.Craus, D. Costandache, "43 Internationales Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium", Ilmenau , sept. 1998
  • Study of a ferrite sensor for medium magnetic field intensity measurement, O. Baltag, D. Costandache, A. Salceanu, Studies in applied electromagnetics and mechanics, in „Studies in Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics”, vol.18, Editori: P.di Barba, A. Savini, pp.665-669, 2000, IOS Press-Amsterdam, ISSN: 1383-7281
electronic circuits for fluxgate magnetometer
ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS FOR FLUXGATE MAGNETOMETER

Electronic devices for fluxgate excitation and generating of reference signal,Patent RO., No. 80140 (1982), Int. Cl. G01G33/02

electronic circuits for fluxgate magnetometer1

Reference 2f

Negative feedback circuit

Us

D.C. Amplifier

h

Ue

Excitation

Generator

S

Excitation

generator

Ur = Ue

Selective amplifier

Phase shift

Synchro-nous

Detector

ir

Ur

hr

Fluxgate

f

Feedback

coil

Ku , Ki , rr

Frequency divider 1/2

Generator

2f

Reference 2f

ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS FOR FLUXGATE MAGNETOMETER
  • Negative feedback network
electronic circuits for fluxgate magnetometer2
ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS FOR FLUXGATE MAGNETOMETER

Integrated hybrids circuits for magnetometry

- ceramics support

- resistors – laser trimming

- active components: integrated circuits

- packaging – epoxy resins and quartz powder