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Winemaking Decisions and Wine Composition: Overview. Linda F. Bisson Department of Viticulture and Enology University of California, Davis. Everything you do has an impact. Juice and Wine Processing. Pre-fermentation Processing Fermentation Management Post-fermentation Processing Aging.

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winemaking decisions and wine composition overview

Winemaking Decisions and Wine Composition: Overview

Linda F. Bisson

Department of Viticulture and Enology

University of California, Davis

juice and wine processing
Juice and Wine Processing
  • Pre-fermentation Processing
  • Fermentation Management
  • Post-fermentation Processing
  • Aging
pre fermentation processing
Pre-Fermentation Processing
  • Harvest Decisions
  • Crushing
  • Pressing
  • Temperature of each
  • Sulfite addition
  • Inoculation strategy
  • Microbial bioloads
juice must treatments
Juice/Must Treatments
  • Skin contact
  • Cold Soak
  • Clarification
  • Additions
  • Adjustments
skin contact
Skin Contact
  • Allowing juice to remain in contact with skins and seeds
  • Increases extraction of material from skins
  • Increases astringency
  • May be done at varying temperatures
  • Will occur during pressing operation
cold soak
Cold Soak
  • Cold Soak:holding red must at low temperatures for an extended period of time prior to fermentation to increase extraction of components
  • Impacts microbial flora
clarification
Clarification
  • Removal of suspended particles in juice
  • Can facilitate downstream processing
  • May be removing needed yeast nutrients (over-clarifying)
juice clarification
Juice Clarification
  • Natural (Gravity) Settling:
    • Rack Juice from lees: results in loss of volume
  • Batch and Continuous Drainers
    • To separate juice from solids
    • Control size of particles removed
  • Centrifugation
    • Can lead to aeration of wine
    • May strip too many solids
juice clarification1
Juice Clarification
  • Filtration
    • Juice may be difficult to filter
  • Flotation
    • Use of fine suspension of gas (nitrogen) bubbles
    • Suspended pulp becomes attached to bubbles and floats to surface allowing removal
juice must additions
Juice/Must Additions
  • Nutrient additions
    • Direct impacts on microbial growth
    • Indirect impacts on wine chemistry
juice must additions1
Juice/Must Additions
  • Nutrient additions
  • Microorganisms
microorganisms
Microorganisms
  • Yeast: Saccharomyces cerevisiae or Saccharomyces bayanus: No limit on addition, typically no more than 106 cells/mL.
  • Bacteria: Malolactic bacteria, generally Oenococcusoeni: Also no limit on addition, can be as high as 108 cells/mL
juice must additions2
Juice/Must Additions
  • Nutrient additions
  • Microorganisms
  • Enzyme additions
enzyme additions
Enzyme Additions
  • Amylases: breakdown complex polysaccharides
  • Cellulases: breakdown complex polysaccharides
  • Pectinase: breakdown pectins
  • Protease: breakdown of proteins
  • Glycosidase: release of terpines
purpose of enzyme additions
Purpose of Enzyme Additions
  • Increase yield
  • Facilitate settling
  • Release flavors
  • Prevent wine haze from forming later in processing
juice must additions3
Juice/Must Additions
  • Nutrient additions
  • Microorganisms
  • Enzyme additions
  • Inert solids
inert solids
Inert Solids
  • Settling aids to increase clarification of juice
  • Increase solids content to facilitate yeast fermentation
juice must additions4
Juice/Must Additions
  • Nutrient additions
  • Microorganisms
  • Enzyme additions
  • Inert solids
  • Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
sulfur dioxide
Sulfur Dioxide
  • Antioxidant: enzymatic
  • Antimicrobial
  • Stimulation of yeast
  • Bleaches red wine color
juice additions
Juice Additions
  • Nutrient additions
  • Microorganisms
  • Enzyme additions
  • Inert solids
  • Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
  • Dimethyl Dicarbonate (DMDC)
juice additions1
Juice Additions
  • Nutrient additions
  • Microorganisms
  • Enzyme additions
  • Inert solids
  • Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
  • Dimethyl Dicarbonate (DMDC)
  • Ascorbic Acid: Antioxidant
juice additions2
Juice Additions
  • Nutrient additions
  • Microorganisms
  • Enzyme additions
  • Inert solids
  • Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
  • Dimethyl Dicarbonate (DMDC)
  • Ascorbic Acid: Antioxidant
  • Oxygen
oxygen
Oxygen
  • Stimulates microorganisms
  • Required by yeast for optimal ethanol tolerance
  • Stimulates oxidation reactions so oxidation products can be removed early (does not always work!)
juice additions3
Nutrient additions

Microorganisms

Enzyme additions

Inert solids

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)

Dimethyl Dicarbonate (DMDC)

Ascorbic Acid: Antioxidant

Oxygen

Water

Juice Additions
acidity adjustment
Acidity Adjustment
  • Increase acidity
    • Tartaric and malic acid addition
    • Ion exchange
  • Decrease acidity
    • Calcium carbonate (not below 6 g/L)
    • Ion Exchange
  • Alter pH
    • Ion Exchange
post fermentation operations
Post-Fermentation Operations:
  • Clarity
  • Compositional adjustment
  • Stability
  • Style
  • Packaging
winery trials
Winery Trials
  • Needs to be done with your equipment
  • Needs to be done with your fruit
  • Needs to be controlled – meaning you can reach a solid conclusion
  • Needs to be evaluated using your subsequent processing strategy
the importance of controls
The Importance of Controls
  • Minimizing number of impact variables
  • Isolation of effects
  • Will dictate what question you are really answering
today s program
Today’s Program
  • Pressing
    • Pressure and skin contact
  • Oxygen treatment effects
    • Pre- and during fermentation
  • Tannin management