Anatomy/Health Science Mangala Iyengar 10/25/08 Science Olympiad Coaches Institute
The Event • Covers anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the skeletal and circulatory systems • Process skills expected may include data collection, making observations, inferences, predictions, calculations, analyses and conclusions. • NO resources
Test Format • Timed Stations • Case Studies • Data Analysis • Passage Analysis (Division C) • Other Activities (Divisions B and C) • Model Digestive System • Puzzles
Study Focuses • Critical Thinking and Logical Reasoning • Integration of Systems; the “big picture” • Pathology as a window to physiology • Speed • Memorization is important and necessary – but it will not get you very far.
Resources • Campbell’s “Biology” • NCSO Event Resources • Wikipedia • http://www.tufts.edu/as/wright_center/products/sci_olympiad/sci_olympiad.html - older practice events and coaches clinics for various events. • http://soinc.org/ • http://www.lakesideschool.org/upperschool/community/scienceolympiad/resources.html - good compilation of links
Tournament Strategies • Do not split up the systems between teammates • Write down questions on your sheet so you can answer them later • Bring a watch to time yourself at stations. • Don’t panic if you don’t know the answer off the bat; try to reason your way through
Mock Event: Part 1 • Directions will be on the projector screen – follow Anatomy or Health Science instructions as appropriate. • 2:00 per station, 30 second warning • 1st portion: Anatomy Stations, Health Science Passage Analysis. Stations are in this power point; passage analysis is further back in the notebook.
Anatomy Stations 1-2 (4 minutes) • What are the three layers of tissue made of in an artery? • What are the three layers of tissue made of in a vein? • How do the walls of arteries differ from the walls of veins? • What is the one thing that veins have that arteries do not? • How do the differences between veins and arteries (your answers to 3 and 4) relate to the functions that each one performs. (In other words, what structural feature(s) make arteries better suited for transporting blood from the heart and veins better for transporting blood to the heart?)
Anatomy Station 3 • The middle trace (“volume changes”) is numbered 1-5. Match each of these numbers to the appropriate description (below). • 1. ____ rapid filling of ventricles • 2. ____ isovolumetric relaxation • 3. ____ atrial systole • 4. ____ blood flows into aorta • 5. ____ isovolumetric contraction • 6. Is this a trace of the left or right ventricle? How do you know? (1 sentence max)
Anatomy Station 4 • What are the units of compact bone? • What are the large dark spots? • What are the small dark spots?
Anatomy Station 5 • Jim has a serious genetic disorder called Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome. He suffers from immunodeficiency and bleeds for hours before his blood can clot. • Where in Jim’s body do all these problems originate? How do you know? • Bonus: What would you suggest as a treatment for Jim?
Mock Event: Part 2 • Health Science stations will be up on the projector; Anatomy will spend the next 10 minutes doing the puzzler activity in teams. • 2 minute stations, 5 stations for Health Science • Puzzle: 4 by 4 square; the two squares with the smiley-faces fit together as two of the center squares.
Health Science Station 1 • Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a congenital heart disease. Before birth, there is a shunt called the ductus arteriosus that connects the aorta to the pulmonary artery. This duct normally shortly after birth. However, in people with PDA, the ductus arteriosus remains open. • What effect will this have? Give ALL CORRECT ANSWERS. You will get a point for correct answers, and lose a point for incorrect answers. • Deoxygenated blood from the pulmonary artery will flow into the aorta, causing deoxygenated blood to circulate in the body. • Oxygenated blood from the aorta will flow into the pulmonary artery, causing oxygenated blood to mix into the pulmonary circulation. • The blood pressure in the lungs will decrease • The blood pressure in the lungs will increase • Fluid will accumulate in the lungs because the tissue pressure exerted by the lungs will not be enough to counter the increased blood pressure • The lungs will have lower blood pressure because the blood from the pulmonary artery will have run into the aorta.
A patient at a hospital has been genotyped for several blood antigens. The results from the test show that they are IAi/Rh-Rh-/LMLM . Which of the following donors can donate blood to this patient? IAi/Rh-Rh-/LMLN IBi/Rh-Rh-/LMLM IAIA/Rh-Rh-/LNLN ii/Rh+Rh+/LMLN IBi/Rh-Rh+/ LNLN ii/Rh-Rh-/ LMLN IBIB/Rh+Rh-/ LMLM A baby’s paternity is in dispute, and its blood genotypes are IAi/Rh-Rh-/LMLM . Which of the following genotypes could represent the father? IAi/Rh-Rh-/LMLN IBi/Rh+Rh-/LMLM IAIA/Rh-Rh-/LNLN ii/Rh+Rh+/LMLN IBi/Rh-Rh+/ LNLN ii/Rh-Rh+/ LMLN IBIB/Rh+Rh-/ LMLM Health Science Station 2 There may be multiple correct answers to each of the following questions. You will receive a point for each correct answer, and lose a point for each incorrect answer.
Health Science Station 3 • The shift in hemoglobin saturation represented by this graph is called the ? • What is the enzyme that primarily regulates blood pH? • How does pH affect hemoglobin saturation? (All correct answers) • At low pH, hemoglobin is more saturated because it has to bind more tightly to oxygen. • At low pH, hemoglobin is less saturated because it has to release oxygen to tissues • At high pH, hemoglobin is more saturated because it has to release oxygen to the tissues • At high pH, hemoglobin is less saturated because it has to bind oxygen more tightly
Health Science Station 4 • What is wrong with this person? • Circle the part of the X-ray that allowed you to diagnose the person • List 3 symptoms that this patient might be experiencing. • Name one activity that this person should probably avoid.
Health Science Station 5 • Match each joint location to its type (eg ellipsoid, hinge, etc) • Hip • Wrist • Elbow • CarpalsMetacarpals 2. Pick two of the above and explain what would happen to your body if the joint types were switched.
Answers and Grading • “Ideal” answers given here • Partial credit will be given for most questions and/or incomplete answers • Each portion of an expected answer is assigned a point value; you get points for the number of correct things you say. • Incorrect answers will not lose points unless stated in the station question or directions
Answers : Anatomy 1-2 1 and 2: Endothelium/Smooth muscle/connective tissue 3. Artery walls have a thicker layer of muscle 4. Veins have valves 5. The thicker muscle in artery walls gives them more elasticity to deal with the higher pressures coming directly out of the heart (1) and also allows them to contract or expand the artery in response to nevous feedback (2). Veins have much lower blood pressure, and the valves that they have prevent blood from flowing backwards (1).
Answers: Anatomy 3 • 4 • 3 • 5 • 2 • 1 • Left (1); it is unlikely that there would be such high pressures in the pulmonary circulation (2).
Answers: Anatomy 4 • Haversian Systems OR osteons • Haversian Canals OR Central Canals • Lacunae
Answers: Anatomy 5 • Bone marrow (2). The normal function of bone marrow is to make blood cells – red, white, and platelets (2). Immunodeficiency indicates that white blood cells are not functioning (1); bleeding for hours suggests that there is a problem with platelets as well (1). This information adds up to a problem with the bone marrow. • A bone-marrow transplant.
Answers: Anatomy Puzzler • Should have a completed puzzle in every notebook. • Questions?
Health Science Answers: 1 • B, D, and E This question tests an understanding of both blood flow around the heart and blood pressure. Since the aorta is at higher pressure than the pulmonary artery, blood will flow into the PA if the two are joined. This will increase blood pressure in the lungs, which will also cause fluid to accumulate in the lung tissue, since the lungs do not usually encounter pressures comparable to those in the aorta.
1. A, C, and F. The patient is Rh-, so the donor must be as well, so we can eliminate donors D, E, and G. Donor B can be eliminated because they carry the IBallele. The MN allele carries weak to no cross-reactivity and is not usually a factor in blood donation, so patients A, C, and F can all donate. 2. A, B, and F. C and E do not carry the M allele, so there is no chance that they can be the father. Looking at the ABO types, we can eliminate only G, because he has 2 IB alleles. D carries 2 Rh+ alleles and therefore cannot father an Rh- child. The genotypes left are A, B, and F. Health Science Answers 2
Health Science Answers: 3 • The Bohr Shift • Carbonic Anhydrase • B. Low pH indicates high pCO2, meaning that the body is O2 deprived, which would mean that hemoglobin would deliver O2 to tissues more. Only B makes sense.
Health Science Answers: 4 • Disc Herniation • See picture • Pain, numbness, tingling, weakness in feet, bowel/ bladder irregularities, inability to straighten back, etc. • Running/jumping/lifting heavy things/etc
Health Science Answers: 5 • Hip – ball and socket, wrist – ellipsoid, elbow – hinge, Carpals/metacarpals – saddle. • If the elbow were a ball and socket and the hip a hinge, we would only be able to move our legs straight forward and backward – there would be little ability to pivot or turn around/change direction easily when walking or running. On the other hand, our elbows would be able to move in just about any direction; we could bend our arms backwards and swing them in a circle from the elbow.
Health Science Passage Analysis Answers • C,D • A,D • B,C • A,D