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Chapter 5. Road to Independence. S-1:Revenue (incoming money) . Mercantilist system: colonies were expected to serve the colonial power Bill for French and Indian War Small taxes won’t matter Brits paying even more. Sugar Act 1764. Placed a new tax on molasses (tri. Trade)

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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

Road to Independence

S 1 revenue incoming money
S-1:Revenue (incoming money)

  • Mercantilist system: colonies were expected to serve the colonial power

  • Bill for French and Indian War

  • Small taxes won’t matter

  • Brits paying even more

Sugar act 1764
Sugar Act 1764

  • Placed a new tax on molasses (tri. Trade)

  • Replaced a higher tax which if paid, put colonial merchants out of business

  • Made it easier to bring smugglers to trial

1765 stamp act
1765 Stamp Act

  • Placed new duties on legal documents, papers, etc.

  • Made it easier to bring smugglers to trial

  • Duties also used in Britain

Stamp act congress
Stamp Act Congress

  • Delegates from 9 colonies meet in NYC

  • Drew up petition to George III and Parliament

  • Rejected the Act and signed nonimportation agreement

  • Urged merchants to boycott British goods


  • No Taxation without Representation

  • Ignored


  • Boycotts

    • Refused to buy certain goods and services from British

    • Trade fell 14%

    • BT merchants complained to their government

    • 1766 Parliament repealed (canceled) the Act

    • BUT Pass>>>

Declaratory act 1766
Declaratory Act 1766

  • Parliament has the right to tax and make decisions for the British colonies “in all cases.”

  • Ignored colonial tradition of self-government

Townshend acts 1767
Townshend Acts 1767

  • Taxed imported goods such as glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea

  • Low tax but still: TWOR

    • Set up new ways to collect taxes

      • Customs officials sent to ports to stop smuggling

      • Writs of Assistance: legal document no reason needed

      • Could search homes


  • More Protests

  • Sons of Liberty: formed to protest BT policies

    • Staged mock hangings of cloth or straw effigies

      Dressed as BT officials

Samuel adams
Samuel Adams Townshend Acts

  • Failure in business

  • Poor public speaker

  • Talent for organizing people

  • Loved politics

  • Attended town meetings and Son’s of Liberty meetings (organized the group in Boston)

Patrick henry
Patrick Henry Townshend Acts

  • Member of VA House of Burgesses

  • Persuaded them to take action against the Stamp Act

    • Resolution: (formal expression of opinion) only it had the right to tax the colonists

Section 2
Section 2 Townshend Acts

  • Building Colonial Unity

    • Boston Massacre

    • Boston Tea Party

    • Intolerable Acts

Increasing tensions
Increasing tensions Townshend Acts

  • Port Cities are centers of Protest (Boston and Philadelphia)

  • Britain sends soldiers to Boston to protect customs officers from local citizens

  • Difficulty doing their jobs

  • Become daily reminder to citizens that Britain was bullying them into paying unjust taxes

  • Soldiers were heckled and sometime beaten

Boston massacre
Boston Massacre Townshend Acts

  • March 1770 outside British customs house

  • Crowd is heckling the redcoats throwing snowballs, oysters, and ice at them

  • Crowd grows and soldiers fire into the crowd

  • 5 people killed

    • Samuel Maverick (17)

    • Crispus Attucks (black sailor)

Paul revere
Paul Revere Townshend Acts

  • Boston Silversmith

  • Makes an engraving showing BT soldier firing on unarmed colonists.

a citizen has his back turned2. there is a puppy in front of the civilians symbolizing their helplessness.3. a church behind the battle showing that maybe the soldiers had no regard for religon or church. since they killed people in the presence of a church building.4. A a building behing the soldiers it says "butchers market" is right above the soldiers referring that it was a all tries to give the idea that the soldiers committed a haneous crime.

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What does revere s engraving show
What does Revere’s Engraving Show? Townshend Acts

  • a citizen has his back turned

  • there is a puppy in front of the civilians symbolizing their helplessness

  • a church behind the battle showing that maybe the soldiers had no regard for religion or church since they killed people in the presence of a church building

  • a building behind the soldiers is labeled "butchers market“ referring to a slaughter

  • Crispus Attucks appears white

  • Looks like it’s in daylight (blue sky) except for moon

  • British soldiers standing in straight line

RESULTS Townshend Acts

  • Soldiers Arrested and tried in court

  • John Adams defends them (justice)

    • Argues that they were provoked

    • Light punishment

  • Parliament repeals Townshend Acts except on tea (same day as Boston Massacre)

  • Many ended boycotts

  • Calm for a few years

Samuel adams again
Samuel Adams again… Townshend Acts

  • Starts committees of correspondence

    • A form of protest

    • Circulate writings against the British

    • Committees spread throughout colonies

What s this about tea
What’s this about TEA? Townshend Acts

  • A million colonists brewed tea twice a day!

  • App. 15mill. pounds of tea sat unsold in BT warehouses

  • Parliament passes the TEA ACT 1773

    • British East India Co. facing bankruptcy

    • To save Parliament let the co. bypass

      tea merchants and sell directly to colonists

Eliminate middle man
Eliminate Middle Man Townshend Acts

  • Still a tax

  • Tea is cheaper

  • Angers American tea merchants

    • Cut out

    • Violated free enterprise to force them to buy from a particular company

Results Townshend Acts

  • New Boycott of tea

  • Daughters of Liberty (liberty tea)

  • Sons of Liberty (kept it from being unloaded)

Boston tea party boston harbor a teapot tonight the mohawks are come
Boston Tea Party Townshend ActsBoston harbor a teapot tonight! The Mohawks are come!”

  • Dec. 16, 1773-group of men disguised as Mohawks and armed with hatchets go to wharves and at midnight board ship and throw 342 chests of tea in water

  • Had demanded governor make the ships go back but governor refused

  • Organized by Sam Adams and Sons of Liberty

Intolerable acts
Intolerable Acts Townshend Acts

  • Punish colonists (Massachusetts) for Boston Tea Party

  • 1774 Parliament encouraged by George III passes Coercive Acts

    • 1. Boston port closed until tea paid for

    • 2. No town mtgs. In Mass. Colonists could not hold town meetings more than 1xyear w/o the governor’s permission

    • 3. Juries selected by BT officials

    • 4. BT officials accused of major crimes

      tried in BT courts

    • 5. Quartering Act

    • 6. Quebec Act

Quartering act
Quartering Act Townshend Acts

  • Under this law, colonists had to provide housing, candles, bedding, and beverages to soldiers stationed in the colonies.

Also passes quebec act
Also passes Quebec Act Townshend Acts

  • Set up a government for Canada and gave complete religious freedom to French Catholics

  • Extended the borders of Quebec to include land between Ohio and Missouri Rivers

Section 3 a call to arms
Section 3 Townshend ActsA Call to Arms

  • Continental Congress

    • 55 delegates meet in Philadelphia (not GA)

    • To establish a political body to represent American interests and challenge British control

    • Mainly leaders/lawyers: Richard Henry Lee, Patrick Henry, Sam Adams, John Adams, George Washington

Outcome of congress
Outcome of Congress Townshend Acts

  • Wrote statement of grievances wanting 13 acts of Parliament passed since 1763 repealed

  • Boycott all British goods and trade

  • Endorse Suffolk Resolves: called on people of Suffolk county to arm themselves

  • Militias form- groups of citizen soldiers

The first battles
The First Battles Townshend Acts

  • Minutemen: soldiers ready to fight on a

    minute’s notice

  • Britain takes notice of colonists

    readying themselves for conflict

  • King George states colonies are in a “state of rebellion” and “blows must decide” who would control America

General thomas gage
General Thomas Gage Townshend Acts

  • British General with thousands of Redcoats under his control around Boston

  • Instructed to take away Massachusetts militia weapons and arrest leaders

  • Ordered a march to Concord to

    seize and destroy artillery

  • Colonists watching for unusual activity by BT Townshend Acts

  • Doctor alerts Paul Revere and William Dawes

  • They ride to Lexington to warn Samuel Adams and John Hancock

  • Revere rides through sleepy towns warning colonists along the way the Redcoats are coming

Paul revere s ride
Paul Townshend ActsRevere’s Ride


Lexington and concord
Lexington and Concord Townshend Acts

  • Minutemen: arms at Concord (18 mi)

  • Gage -surprise attack

  • April 18, 1775 700 BT troops quietly leave Boston in dark

  • Approach 70 minutemen at Lexington commanded by John Parker

  • Shot : no one knows who fired /8 colonists dead.

  • Concord, find little arms, turn back Townshend Acts

  • Meet 300 minutemen on bridge outside Concord

  • BT forced to retreat

  • Colonists shooting from woods/ fields/fences and women from windows

  • 73 dead 174 wounded

  • Committees of Correspondence: join militia

Ft ticonderoga
Ft. Ticonderoga Townshend Acts

  • Ethan Allen, VT blacksmith,

  • leads “Green Mountain Boys”

  • Benedict Arnold authorized to raise a force to do this so join together

    • Surprise attack

Ft surrendered why important
Ft. Surrendered: Why important? Townshend Acts

  • Valuable supply of cannons and gunpowder

  • Control of a key route into Canada

1 st year most fighting around boston
1 Townshend Actsst Year Most Fighting around Boston

  • 6000 troops surrounded by Militia

  • Colonel William Prescott lead 1200 men up Bunker Hill

    • Could fire on BT ships in Boston Harbor

  • Orders men to move to Breed’s Hill

  • BT General William Howe moves 2400 Redcoats to attack

    • 2 retreats then successful

Why is this important
Why is this important? Townshend Acts

  • 1. First major battle of the Revolution

  • 2. Proved that Americans could fight bravely

  • 3.Showed that the British would not be easy to defeat.

Section 4
Section 4: Townshend Acts

  • Second Continental Congress: May 10, 1775

  • 1.John Hancock President from Mass.

    $/funded SOL

    2.authorized printing of $

    3.set up post office

    4.diplomatic committees

    5. Continental Army

    George Washington as Commander

    6.sent Olive Branch Petition to King

Olive branch petition
Olive Branch Petition Townshend Acts

  • Declared loyalty to the King

  • Asked him to repeal Intolerable Acts

  • Asked him to protect Colonial rights

  • Kings response is declare war and send 30,000 more soldiers

Colonies take offensive
Colonies take Offensive Townshend Acts

  • Learn of invasion of NY planned

  • March from Ft. Ticonderoga and capture Montreal, Canada

  • Benedict Arnold attacks Quebec/unsuccessful

Washington and the troops
Washington and the Troops Townshend Acts

  • Arrives to Boston after Bunker Hill and begins training.

    • 16,000 troops

    • Mistrust between colonies

  • Attack Boston/Cannons

  • Drive out Redcoats (Sir William Howe)

  • Success: Redcoats leave Boston

    • Go to Canada

    • 1000 Loyalists join them

Common sense
Common Sense Townshend Acts

  • Pamphlet

  • Published by Thomas Paine

  • Change Attitudes toward King

  • Complete independence from BT

  • Idea of King or Queen is wrong

  • 500,000 sold in 6 months

Declaration of independence
Declaration of Independence Townshend Acts

  • Proposed by Richard Henry Lee

  • Goal: Tell the world why we are

    claiming Independence

  • Committee to draft

    • Jefferson chosen to write it

      • Ability to write clearly and gracefully

      • Drew on ideas of John Locke

        • -natural rights (life liberty and property)

        • Governments exist FOR the people

Hancock first to sign it.

June 2 1776
June 2, 1776 Townshend Acts

  • Congress votes colonies are “free and independent” states

  • Adopted July 4, 1776

  • Printed for mass distribution

  • GW reads to troops

  • Celebration in the colonies

  • King orders blockade of colonial ports and hires German mercenaries