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Plant Form and Function Soil and Plant Nutrition. Plant biology, perhaps the oldest branch of science, is driven by a combination of curiosity and need curiosity about how plants work need to apply this knowledge judiciously to feed, clothe, and house a burgeoning human population.

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plant form and function soil and plant nutrition
Plant Form and FunctionSoil and Plant Nutrition

Plant biology, perhaps the oldest branch of science, is driven by a combination of curiosity and need

curiosityabout how plants work

needto apply this knowledge judiciously to feed, clothe, and house a burgeoning human population.

plant nutrition
Plant Nutrition
  • What does a plant need to survive?
    • 9 macronutrients (required in large quantities)
    • C, H, N, O, P, S, K, Ca, Mg
    • 8 micronutrients (required in small quantities)
    • Fe, Cl, Cu, Mn, Zn, Mo, B, Ni
      • usually serve as cofactors of enzymatic reactions
soil bacteria and nitrogen availability

Atmosphere

N2

N2

Atmosphere

Nitrate and nitrogenousorganiccompoundsexported inxylem toshoot system

Soil

Nitrogen-fixingbacteria

N2

Denitrifyingbacteria

H+ (From soil)

NH4+

NH3 (ammonia)

Soil

NO3– (nitrate)

NH4+ (ammonium)

Nitrifyingbacteria

Ammonifyingbacteria

Organicmaterial (humus)

Root

Soil Bacteria and Nitrogen Availability

Nitrogen-fixing bacteria convert atmospheric N2

plants absorb ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-)

mineral deficiency

Healthy

Phosphate-deficient

Potassium-deficient

Nitrogen-deficient

Mineral Deficiency
  • The most common deficiencies are those of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus
hydroponics
Hydroponics
  • Remove only one macronutrient to see effects on plant
slide7
Soil
  • Texture and Composition
    • Texture depends on size of particles
    • sand-silt-clay
    • loams: equal amounts of sand, silt, clay
    • Composition
    • Horizons-living organic matter
      • A horizon: topsoil, living organisms, humus
      • B horizon: less organic, less weathering than A horizon
      • C Horizon: “parent” material for upper layers
    • Soil conservation issues
      • fertilizers, irrigation, erosion
soil aeration
Soil Aeration
  • A mixture of mineral particles, decaying organic material, living organisms, air, and water, which together support the growth of plants
nutritional adaptations
Nutritional Adaptations
  • Symbiotic Relationships
    • symbiotic nitrogen fixation
      • Legume root nodules contain bacteroids (Rhizobium bacteria)
      • mutualistic relationship
      • Crop rotation
    • Mycorrhizae
      • symbiotic associations of fungi and roots
      • mutualistic relationship
      • Ectomycorrhizae - mycelium forms mantle over root
      • Endomycorrhizae - does not form mantle; hyphae extend inward
    • Parasitic plants
      • plants that supplement their nutrition from host
      • mistletoe, dodder plant, Indian pipe
    • Carnivorous plants
      • supplement nutrition by digesting animals
slide10

EPIPHYTES

Staghorn fern, an epiphyte

PARASITIC PLANTS

Host’s phloem

Dodder

Haustoria

Dodder, a nonphotosynthetic parasite

Mistletoe, a photosynthetic parasite

Indian pipe, a nonphotosynthetic parasite

CARNIVOROUS PLANTS

Venus’ flytrap

Sundews

Pitcher plants

Pitcher plant

Venus flytrap

phytoremediation
Phytoremediation
  • Poplars remove nitrates
  • Mustard removes uranium
wetlands phytoremediation
WetlandsPhytoremediation

Pesticide Levels (ppb) inGround Water Before & AfterPhytoremediation Activities