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Energy . Drives earthquakes and volcanic eruptions Concentrated at certain tectonic settings Associated with the Earth’s formation. Driving Forces on and within the Earth?. Driving Forces within the Earth. Heat formation: Impact of asteroids and comets in Earth’s early history

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energy
Energy
  • Drives earthquakes and volcanic eruptions
  • Concentrated at certain tectonic settings
  • Associated with the Earth’s formation
driving forces within the earth
Driving Forces within the Earth
  • Heat formation:
    • Impact of asteroids and comets in Earth’s early history
    • Decay of radioactive elements
    • Gravitational contraction
    • Differentiation into layers

Artist Impression, NASA

driving forces on and within the earth1
Driving Forces on and within the Earth?
  • Earth’s internal heat
    • Flows within the mantle (largest volume of Earth)
    • Release in terms of volcanic activity and earthquakes
    • Long-term: continents, oceans and atmosphere
    • Movement of tectonic plates

Greg Houseman, University of Leeds

driving forces on the earth
Driving Forces on the Earth
  • Gravity: the attraction between bodies
    • Segregating elements within the Earth
    • Movement along the Earth’s surface
      • landslides
    • Movement within the Earth
      • Subducting oceanic slab moving into the mantle

Landslide, China

driving forces on the earth1
Driving Forces on the Earth
  • The Sun
    • ¼ of the Sun’s energy reaches the Earth
    • Evaporation
    • Warming of atmosphere and hydrosphere
    • Weather: movement of air from warm to cooler areas
formation of solar system
Formation of Solar System
  • What happened in the past and how is this currently reflected?
    • Gravitional force
    • Variations of temperatures
    • Rotation
    • Composition of material
    • Different states of matter
the nebular hypothesis
The Nebular Hypothesis
  • A nebula is formed from a collection of gases (98%) and dust (2%)
  • The mass rotates and is held together by gravity.

The solar system formation

where do we see this in our sky
Where do we see this in our sky?
  • Third star down on Orion’s belt
  • Star nursery
  • 100 light years across (1 light year equals 6 trillion miles)
  • Reflection of dust and hydrogen
orion constellation
Orion Constellation
  • Winter sky constellation
  • Hunter in Greek mythology
  • New stars in several hundred million years
nebula step i
Nebula exists and through time:

Contracts causing the nebula to increase temperature in center and increase speed of rotation

Nebula: Step I
the nebula collapses step 2
The Nebula collapses: step 2
  • The collapsed mass forms a proto-sun and disc-shape rotating mass of gas and dust.
  • The Orion nebula contains about 153 visible protoplanetary disks
  • 2-17 times larger than our solar system
slide13
Rotation increases

Temperature increases: 1,800,000 degrees Fahrenheit

Fusion begins

Protosun

fusion
Fusion
  • What does “to fuse” mean?
  • Remember, what is the composition of the nebula?
  • Look on the periodic table
  • What is the relation or difference between Hydrogen and Helium?
  • Can you predict what fuses?
fusion1
Fusion
  • Hydrogen (1 proton) fuses with another Hydrogen (1 proton) = Helium (2 protons)
  • E = mc2
  • E = energy
  • m= mass (very small)
  • c squared =speed of light (186,000 miles/second)
step 3 sun forms
Step 3: Sun Forms
  • The disk is “cleared out” due to the immense amount of energy released.
  • Dust and gases cool, condense and accrete forming planetesimals.
  • Defined orbits around the sun
our sun
Our Sun
  • Collapsed disk not shown
  • Sun is about 5 billion years old
  • 5 billion years until a red giant is formed
step 4 material cools and condenses planet formation
Step 4: Material Cools and Condenses; planet formation
  • Temperature differences with respect from the sun
  • Terrestrial planets (closer)
  • Jovian or gaseous planets (farther away)
solar system
Solar System
  • The first four planets are terrestrial (iron and silicate)
  • The last planets are composed of gases
moon s formation
Moon’s Formation

5:20

  • A large size planet , thought to be the size of Mars, collided with Earth- 4.4 billion years ago
  • The debris formed the moon
  • The impact, set the Earth on its axis
  • 23 degrees
the early earth
The Early Earth
  • Hot
  • Homogenous
  • Crust as we know it, not developed
  • 4.6 billion years ago
  • Melted again due to the collision of the Mars size planet
transitional earth
Transitional Earth
  • Segregation of elements by density
  • Iron moves to the center
  • Gravitational pull and rotation
chemically distinct layers
Chemically distinct layers
  • Crust: oxygen and silicon (70%)
  • Mantle: iron, magnesium, lower % Si, O
  • Core: iron and nickel
physically distinct layers
Inner core: solid

Outer core: liquid

Mantle: capable of flow

Asthenosphere: acts like a hot plastic

Lithosphere: rigid

Physically Distinct Layers
lithosphere
Lithosphere
  • Rigid layer that lies between the surface and 60-100 miles
  • “Floats” on the asthenosphere
  • The tectonic plates are composed of lithosphere

Lithosphere

Contains crust and upper mantle

slide28
Continental Crust
  • Less dense
  • Higher % of silicon and oxygen
  • Lower % of iron and magnesium
  • Thicker (15-25 miles)
  • 30 % of Earth’s surface
slide29
Oceanic Crust
  • More dense
  • Higher % of iron and magnesium
  • Lower % of silicon and oxygen
  • Thinner (5-7 miles)
  • 70 % of Earth’s surface
asthenosphere
Asthenosphere
  • Relatively soft layer capable of flow that lies below a depth of 60-100 miles (upper mantle)

Dr. Railsback, University of Georgia

the mantle
The Mantle
  • Largest portion of the Earth
  • Very rich in iron and magnesium
  • Very poor in silicon and oxygen
  • The mantle is solid but because of high temperatures and pressures, it is soft enough to flow
  • The asthenosphere is part of the upper mantle
the core
The Core
  • Outer core-liquid which can flow and generates the Earth’s magnetic field
  • Inner core- solid and rotates faster than the Earth
  • Mostly iron, some nickel

Complex fields in the core contribute to the dipole field at the surface (UC Berkeley)

external source of earth s water
External Source of Earth’s Water
  • The collision of comets with the Earth’s surface
  • As the ice hits the warm Earth, the ice melts to water
  • Gravity holds the water to the surface

Haley’s comet contains ices and dust. The tail is created by ice to sublimate to steam.

internal source of earth s water
Internal Source of Earth’s Water
  • Water vapor is released during volcanism
  • Cooling of the hot Earth involved intense volcanism
  • Water condenses
formation of atmosphere
Formation of Atmosphere
  • Gas is expelled from magma during volcanic eruptions
  • Nitrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, sulfur dioxide and water
  • Early Earth’s atmosphere did not contain which gas? Why?
history of the earth
History of the Earth
  • 4.6 billion years old
  • 4.4 bya, formation of moon
  • 3.9 bya, oldest rock (sedimentary rock)
    • sedimentary rocks are made-up of fragments of preexisting rocks
    • Sediments are carried and deposited by water and wind
    • implies the existence of weather and water
  • 4.1 bya, age of particles within the sedimentary rock

Early Earth

history of the earth1
Fossil Worm, CambrianHistory of the Earth

Sponge

  • 3.5 bya, first bacteria
  • 3.2 bya, algae (product?)
  • plants
    • photosynthesis, by-product is oxygen
  • worms and jelly fish
  • 500 million years ago, Cambrian (life) explosion: marine fauna; modern phyla: sponges, mollusks (clams and snails), echinoderms (sea urchins and stars), anthropoda -trilobites(crabs, lobsters)

Trilobite

earth as an evolving system
Earth as an evolving system
  • Creation and early Earth
  • Earth’s chemically and physically distinct layers
  • Atmosphere (air)
  • Hydrosphere (water)
  • Biosphere (plants and animals)
summary
Summary
  • The Nebular Hypothesis
  • Earth’s heat sources
    • Radioactive decay
    • Initial heat produced by collision of other objects
  • Moon, water and gas formation
  • Earth’s layers, differences and locations
  • Importance of gravitational pull

Think Quest

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