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Jews in America. By Ellis H. Adler. Information. Prior to Coming to America. They were dispersed from there homeland Palestine in the 1 st century Numerous small communities of Jew in Europe Discriminated by the church and civic authorities

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jews in america

Jews in America

By Ellis H. Adler

prior to coming to america
Prior to Coming to America
  • They were dispersed from there homeland Palestine in the 1st century
  • Numerous small communities of Jew in Europe
  • Discriminated by the church and civic authorities
  • Restricted to ghettos and forbidden from owning land
  • Couldn’t be landowners, so became merchants specialized in long-distance trade
  • Series of expulsions
    • England-1290
    • France-1394
    • Spain-1492
reasons for coming to america
Reasons for coming to America
  • First Jews came as individuals, not groups
  • Few came as crew members with explorers—some with Columbus
  • Some were conversos-hidden Jews that “converted” during inquisition
  • Spanish Inquisition in 1492-Jews made to convert or expelled
  • Many Jews fled to Europe and colonies
  • 1755-earthquake in Portugal that destroyed many jails some Jews escaped to American colonies
  • Less persecution in colonies
  • Sephardic Jew came-fleeing Inquisition
  • Ashkenazi Jews came from Germany, Holand, and England
spanish inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
  • Jews were made to convert or they would be torture and expelled
  • Jews fled to:
    • North Africa
    • Turkey
    • Poland
    • Protestant Europe
  • Spanish and Portuguese Jews also went to Amsterdam (Holand)
immigration and new netherlands
Immigration and New Netherlands
  • 1654-Jacob Barisom and Solomon Petersen first Jews to come to America from Holland
  • 23 Jewish refugees from Brazil arrive in New Amsterdam
  • Governor Peter Stuyvest wanted to expel Jews, Lutherans, and Quakers from New Netherland
  • The colony was owned by the Dutch West India Company that had several Jews on its board of directors
    • Peter Stuyvest overruled
  • 1656-Stuyvest order to let Jews trade freely and own real estate
  • 1657-full civil rights granted to Jews by Peter Stuyvest
ashkenazi and sephardic jews
Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews
  • First Jewish immigrants were Sephardic Jew from Brazil
  • Sephardic Jew originally from Iberian Peninsula
  • Brazil was under Dutch rule (tolerant of Jews), but the Portuguese took over (non-tolerant)
  • 1656-First Jewish congregation made in New Amsterdam
  • 21 years later-Congregation established in Newport, Rhode Island
  • 1702-Ashkenazi Jews from Germanic Europe arrive
  • Joined synagogues developed by Sephardic Jews
  • Sephardic Jews originally didn’t accept the Ashkenazi Jews
  • Over time 2 groups blended and inter-married
  • 1776-2000 Jews in the American colonies
jews in america8
Jews in America
  • 1 Jew: 1000 settlers
  • Jews did not spend time fighting for political rights wanted to practice their religions and develop livelihood
  • Many became merchants-common to trade with Curacao significant population from Amsterdam
  • Jews built ships
    • Merchant ships trade with England, Holland, Newfoundland, Curacao, Jamaica, and St. Christopher
    • Trades salt, sugar, slaves, bottles, bricks, coconuts, pork, textiles, tobacco, and onions
  • Jews set up trade through families and commercial ties they had with Jewish communities in West Indies, Britain, and Holland
  • Also traded with New Christians (forced Jewish converts or their descendants) in Spain and Portugal
jewish experience in america
Jewish Experience in America
  • Became good traders
  • Settled in New Port, Charleston, Savannah, and Philadelphia
  • At first Christians distrusted Jews and denied them basic rights as citizens
  • 1665-New Amsterdam became New York England took over Jews guaranteed religious tolerance
  • Won right to be nuturalized (trade freely and worship publicly) These rights were also granted in Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and New York
  • Financially supported revolution
  • Able to fight in the military
jews and revolution
Jews and revolution
  • Jews were on both sides-this was unusual-most were on side of colonists
  • Many Jewish merchants gave their fleets to colonist’s and gave financial support
  • Jews joined army
  • Simon was a Jewish merchant who invested in Henry rifle which was used in Revolution
rights for jews post revoltion
Rights for Jews Post-Revoltion
  • Many states had a pledge of Christianity that had to be said before taking office
  • 1791-Bill of Rights amended to Constitution-one at a time the states changed their constitutions and no long required the pledge
  • 1779-Thomas Jefferson drafted the Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom
  • Virginia became first state to grant religious and political freedom to all
  • 1654-Peter Stuyvest asked to not let the first Jews into New Amsterdam, but the Dutch West India Company responded that Jews were allowed in
  • 1661-Kig Charles II gives privileges of Englishmen to all settlers in Jamaica, including Jews
  • 1664-England takes over New Amsterdam renaming it New York guaranteed freedom to all inhabitants
    • Jews guaranteed freedom to worship
  • 1665-Rhode Island gives right to vote to Jews
  • 1674-Duke of York grants full religious freedom
  • 1689-England accepted Toleration Act allowed more rights for Jew in New York
  • 1730-200 Jews in New York built first synagogue and school-Shearith Israel
  • 1774-Francis Salvador first Jew elected to General Assembly of South Carolina
1 st 5 terms
1st 5 terms
  • Sephardic-A group of Jews from Spain and Portugal that were kicked out in 1492 and went mostly to North Africa, the Balkans, Western Europe, and elsewhere; they are diverse culturally from Ashkenazi
  • Ashkenazi-Jews from central and eastern Europe that vary greatly from the Sephardic Jews—in liturgy, religious customs, and how they pronounce Hebrew
  • Diaspora-After Babylonia took Palestine captive the Jews were dispersed around the world
  • Assimilate-The process of adopting new customs and blending into another culture
  • Inquisition-The purpose of inquisitions is to get rid of non-believers of a religion or of a nation, it can be lead by either civil or church authorities. The Spanish Inquisition that took place in 1492 was the most deadly Inquisition and many Jews were massacred
2 nd 5 terms
2nd 5 terms
  • Amalgam-a blend or combination
  • Conversos-hidden Jews who “converted” during Inquisition but really secretly practiced Judaism
  • New Christians-Jews and their descendants who were forced to convert during Inquisition
  • Ant-semetic-a person who discriminates against or is prejudice or hostile towards Jews
  • Burgher-an inhabitant of a town, esp. a member of the middle class
lieutenant colonel solomon bush
Lieutenant-colonel Solomon Bush
  • Highest ranking Jewish official in Continental army
  • Born-October 13, 1753 to Mathias Bush and Tabitha Mears
  • 1776-Joined Pennsylvania militia
  • 1777-Appointed Deputy Adjutant General
  • Picked up enough medical training in combat that people referred to him as Dr. Bush
haym salamon
  • Lived from 1747-1785
  • Polish Jew that migrated to Pennsylvania
  • Wealthy merchant and auctioneer
  • Helped finance the revolution
  • Spy for America in British-held New York
  • He was arrested and then escaped fled to Philadelphia
  • When Continental Congress met he helped house and support many member
  • Helped negotiate aid from France and holland
luiz gomez
Luiz Gomez
  • Spanish Jew fist to purchase land in America
  • Fled to France during Inquisition
  • Received papers of denization-right of citizen
  • Purchased land 5 miles north of Newburgh, New York
    • Jews weren’t allowed to purchase land in Europe
  • Built a stone house on lot that served as seasonal trading post
j simon
J. Simon
  • Frontiersman and trader
  • Owned a lot of land in Pennsylvania
  • Paid for western expedition by Daniel Boone
  • Partners with William Henry who developed the Henry frontier rifle

What was the original name of New York when it was under Dutch rule?

    • New Amsterdam
    • York
    • Holland
  • What areas did most Jews flee to during Spanish Inquisition?
    • South Africa, Sweden, Finland
    • North Africa, Turkey, Poland, Protestant Europe
    • South Africa and India
  • Which 3 groups did Peter Stuyvesant the governor of Netherlands want to expel?
    • Jew, Lutherans, Muslims
    • Muslims, Catholics, and Quakers
    • Jews, Lutherans, and Quakers
  • Where was the first migration of Jews from?
    • Sephardic Jews from Brazil
    • Jews from England
    • Jews from Russia
  • Why did this group migrate?
    • England attacked by Portuguese
    • Brazil taken over by Portuguese
    • Brazil taken over by Spain
  • A) New Amsterdam
  • B) North Africa, Turkey, Poland, Protestant Europe
  • C) Jews, Lutherans, and Quakers
  • A) Sephardic Jews from Brazil
  • B) Brazil taken over by Portugeus

6) When and why did New Amsterdam become New York?

  • Spanish took over in 1665
  • French took over in 1665
  • English took over in 1665

7) What rights were Jews guaranteed by the English and what rights did they gain?

  • Right to vote
  • Religious tolerance
  • Right to hold public office

8) What were major country(ies) that expelled Jews and what years?

  • England-1290
  • France-1394
  • Spain-1492
  • All of the above

9) When were civil rights granted to Jews by Stuyvest?

  • 1657
  • 1700
  • 1750

10) Who was Haym Solomon

  • Jewish merchant who financed revolution
  • Jewish spy for America
  • Help support and house members of Continental Army
  • All of the above

6) C) English took over in 1665

7) B) Religious tolerance

8) D) All of the above

9) A) 1657

10) D)All of the above


Who took over Brazil from the Dutch, and what did they do to the previous inhabitants?

    • Spain
    • Portuguese
    • Germany
  • What company ordered Governor Peter Stuyvesant to permit the Jewish refugees from Recife, Brazil to settle permanently in New Netherland?
    • British East India Company
    • Dutch West India Company
  • What did Governor Peter Stuyvesant decree that Jew of New Netherland had in 1657?
    • Civic rights
    • Right to vote
    • Right to hold public office
  • Which of the following gave political rights to Jews
    • Massachusetts
    • Connecticut
    • New York
  • Who founded Rhode Island that gave Jews and Catholics that right to hold public office?
    • Roger Williams
    • George Dinwiddie
    • William Penn
  • B) Portuguese
  • B) Dutch West India Company
  • A) Civil Rights
  • C) New York
  • A) Roger Williams

What groups did most Jewish merchants deal with?

    • Unitarian and Anglican
    • Quaker and Spaniards
    • West Indies, Britain, Holland, Spain, and Portugal
  • Who are conversos?
    • People who convert to Judaism
    • Hidden Jews converted during Inquisition
    • A group of antis emetics
  • What did the Toleration Acts of 1689 lead to in New York
    • More rights for Jews
    • Less rights for Jews
    • Increase in anti-Semitic behaviors
  • As of 1674 what were the Jews not able to do
    • Be merchants
    • Build synagogues
    • Freedom to worship (in homes)
  • Which side of the Revolution did most Jews support?
    • The colonies
    • England
    • Neither-they stayed out of it

6) C) West Indies, Britain, Holland, Spain, and Portugal

7) B) Hidden Jews converted during Inquisition

8) A) More rights for Jews

9) B) Build synagogues

10) A) the colonies