The triumph of industry 1865 1914
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The Triumph of Industry 1865-1914. Innovation Drives the Nation. Patents A grant by the government to the inventor giving the right to develop and sell inventions without competition Electricity Created by Thomas Jefferson brought lighting to homes and businesses, as well as other things.

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Innovation drives the nation
Innovation Drives the Nation

  • Patents

    • A grant by the government to the inventor giving the right to develop and sell inventions without competition

  • Electricity

    • Created by Thomas Jefferson brought lighting to homes and businesses, as well as other things.

  • Steel Industry

    • Bessemer Process purified iron making it stronger.

    • Bridges, skyscrapers, rail lines.

  • Railroads

    • Time zones were created to maintain schedules.

  • Automobile

    • First began in 1902

The rise of big business
The Rise of Big Business

  • The Corporation

    • More than one person owns the company

    • Raises money by selling stock

    • Layered people structure

    • For profit or non-profit

Gaining competitive edge in business
Gaining Competitive Edge in Business

  • Monopolies

    • When a corporation tries to gain complete control over a market.

  • Cartels

    • Businesses come together and agree to limit production to control prices.

  • Trusts

    • Companies assign their stock to a board of trustees who combine them into a new corporation and take out the profits.

  • Vertical Integration

    • Companies that own the complete line of production.

    • Enables then to control costs and prices.

Oil companies, both multinational (such as ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell, ConocoPhillips or BP) and national (e.g. Petronas) often adopt a vertically integrated structure. This means that they are active along the entire supply chain from locating crude oil deposits, drilling and extracting crude, transporting it around the world, refining it into petroleum products such as petrol/gasoline, to distributing the fuel to company-owned retail stations, for sale to consumers.

  • Horizontal Integration

    • Consolidation of many like businesses to form one business.

    • Purpose is to increase profits and remove competition.

Expansion via acquisition of a competitor or by adding outlets to a chain. For example, a book publisher might acquire another publishing house to increase its stable of editors and authors or to otherwise enhance its competitiveness.

The government imposes regulations
The government Imposes Regulations

  • Interstate Commerce Act (1877)

    • First used to oversee railroads

    • Regulated trade

  • Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)

    • Outlawed any trust that “restrained” trade or commerce.

  • Clayton Antitrust Act (1914)

    • Strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act

The organized labor movement
The Organized Labor Movement

  • Factory Work

    • Sweatshops

      • Working conditions 12 hour days, 6 days a week.

      • Often dangerous places to work.

      • Children worked (1 in 5, ages 10-16, by 1900)

    • Factory Towns

      • Had housing, stores and other amenities to keep worker in debt.

Labor unions
Labor Unions

  • Collective bargaining

    • Employees or representatives negotiating better working conditions

    • Strikes

    • First formed union- National Trades Union (1834)

    • Knights of Labor (1869)

      • Was for all workers

      • Mission was to replace capitalism ways

      • Folded after growing to 700,000 workers

Afl american federation of labor
AFL (American Federation of Labor)

  • Founded by Samuel Gompers

  • AFL was a craft union for skilled workers.

  • Women not allowed.

  • Charges dues and focused on benefits for workers, such as wages, hours, and conditions.

Lasting effects
Lasting Effects

  • Strikes and discontent set the tone for the formation of labor unions in the US.

  • Government becomes more involved in big business.

  • New laws and regulations are passed.


  • Believe that new ideas and honest and efficient government could be social justice.

  • Came from all groups of people.

  • Women wanted the vote.

  • Wanted to see the end of corruption and ineffective government.

  • Others wanted government to regulate big business, bust trusts, and create more opportunities for small business.

  • Close the gap between rich and poor.


  • People who wrote about the social, government, and big business issues.

  • Jacob Riis- photographer

  • Lincoln Steffens- editor known for uncovering social problems

  • Upton Sinclair-wrote The Jungle

Society reforms
Society Reforms

  • Jane Adams-

    • Settlement House

  • Florence Kelly

    • Movement to ban child labor

    • 1912 U.S. Children’s Bureau created

    • Keating-Owens Act also to ban child labor, repealed until 1938.

  • National American Women Suffrage Association

    • Headed by Carrie Catt pushed for the vote

  • Improve education

  • Improve working conditions

Reforming government
Reforming government

  • Many cities went to city commissioners to run things and improve city government

  • Political bosses were being arrested or removed from office.

  • Elections rules are changed

    • Direct primaries-the people elect candidates

    • Initiative-people could put laws on ballots

    • Referendum- people could approve or reject laws passed by legislators

    • Recall- could remove politicians from office

Theodore roosevelt 1901 1909
Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)

  • Becomes president after President McKinely is assassinated.

  • Known as the “Square Deal” president.

  • Started to regulate industry and bust trusts

Laws that were passed
Laws that were passed

  • Hepburn Act (1906)

    • Reinforced the ICC and regulated prices for shipping.

  • Meat Inspection Act (1906)

    • Processing plants to be inspected

  • Food and Drug Act (1906)

    • Correct labelling or products

  • National Reclamation Act (1902)

    • Controlled water rights

  • William h taft 1909 1913
    William H. Taft (1909-1913)

    • Relaxed the rules for corporations and used the “rule of reason” which allowed big business monopolies

    • Undid many of the regulations that Roosevelt had put into place.

    • Defeats Roosevelt in presidential election and TR doesn’t make a third term.

    Wilson s presidency 1913 1921
    Wilson’s presidency (1913-1921)

    • The New Freedom

      • Placed strict controls over government

      • Lowered tariffs on imports to promote lower prices

      • The Federal Reserve Act (1913)

        • Placed national banks under the federal government

        • Sets interest rates

      • Federal Trade Commission

        • Watched business and its practices

    Amendments passed
    Amendments passed

    • 16th Amendment (1913)

      • Passes to create a federal income tax ( Underwood Tariff Act)

  • 18th Amendment (1919)

    • Banned the sale of alcohol

  • 19th Amendment (1920)

    • Gave women the right to vote

  • Progressivism leaves a legacy
    Progressivism Leaves a Legacy

    • Expanded the role of government with regulation.

    • A time for massive new legislation

    • More protections were offered to its citizens.

    • Although not a perfect solution it at least paved the way for today.