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Languages in Contact. Results of Bilingualism & Multilingualism. Language Choice. Asymmetric principle of multilingualism Some languages are more valued than another

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language choice
Language Choice

Asymmetric principle of multilingualism

Some languages are more valued than another

The larger the number of desired roles a language enables its speakers to play in a given society, the higher its place on the hierarchy & vice versa.


It is said to exist where there are two varieties with distinct functions- a prestige (or H) form used in formal settings and in writing, and a L form used in everyday informal communication. There are very clear differences in the functional load of the two varieties.

(Ferguson, 1959)

differences in h and l forms
Differences in H and L forms


3.Literary Tradition



  • Words borrowed from one language to another

A lot of change in the vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and meaning of words in the languages

sprachbunds or linguistic areas
Sprachbunds or linguistic areas
  • Geographical proximity between different language communities with slow spread of features across languages.

Lingua Franca

A helping language, partially developed, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different languages in order to communicate.

other outcomes
Other Outcomes
  • In colonial settings, long-term contact between European and indigenous language led to the creation of ‘New Englishes’such as ‘Singlish’ and ‘Pringlish’.
  • No limit to what speakers of different languages will borrow or transfer from each other.
code switching
Code Switching
  • When two or more languages exist in a community, speakers frequently switch from one language to another. This is known as code switching.
  • It is functionally motivated
  • It is governed by a ‘grammar of consequences’
code switching1
Code Switching

Hey there how are you?

Am fine, long time no see, aur bolo kyahaalchal?

Sabtheekhaiyaar, bas am a little busy these days.

Okay, how’s your worklife?

Cool yaar, sabtheekhai, achahai.

types of code switching
Types of code switching

Situational Code Switch

  • The switch is in response to a change in situation.

Eg. When a participant enters the scene.

situational c ode switching change in participant
Situational Code Switching( Change in Participant)
  • Girl: Mom, Where is Rasheeda?
  • Mom: I don’t know.

(Rasheeda, the maid, enters the room)

  • Girl: HaanRasheeda, Jaakarmerakamrasaafkaro.
types of code switching1
Types of code switching

Situational Code Switch

  • The switch is in response to a change in situation.

Eg. When a participant enters the scene.


To a change in the topic of conversation or the setting.

situational code switching change in topic
Situational Code Switching(Change in Topic)

(Ali goes to take help of a professor through a reference.)

  • Ali: Asalamalikum.
  • Professor: Walikumasalam. Kia haalhai Ali? Gharmeinsabkaisehain?
  • Ali: Sabtheekhain, Allah ka Shukar. Sir, I was wondering if you can help me with this research project.
  • Professor: Oh sure, what is it about?
types of code switching2
Types of code switching

Metaphorical Code Switch

The switch has a stylistic or textual function

Eg. To signal a quotation, to mark emphasis, to indicate the punch line of a joke, or to signal a change in the tone from the serious to the comic.

metaphorical code switching to emphasize
Metaphorical Code Switching( to emphasize)
  • Mother to her children:

Well, Come here! Put these away, both of you now!

(children don’t respond)


metaphorical code switching to signal a quote
Metaphorical Code Switching(To signal a quote)
  • For the way he has fought for his rights consistently, Us ko to sher ka bachayamard ka bachakehnachahiye.
code mixing
Code Mixing
  • A common mode of code switching is switching of languages within sentences, referred to as code mixing.
code mixing1
Code Mixing

Yeh train ka time change ho gayahaikia?

code mixing and borrowing
Code Mixing and Borrowing
  • Borrowing is usually restricted to single set words; Code Mixing is done with phrases as well.
  • Borrowing can be done by monolinguals as well; for code mixing the speaker has to be a bilingual
  • Mostly nouns are borrowed; Code mixing can be done with any part of speech
reasons for code switching code mixing
Reasons for code switching- code mixing
  • Both serve the same function
  • Identity marking
  • Neutrality

My unbending procrastination is one thing that repels the beauty of the world but they say ‘sabar ka phalmeetha’


As they turned to me, I shrugged my shoulder with a ‘Bhaidekh lo, I am not carrying your purse’


Their response, ‘ I think you are right madam,’ said a young man, city life and modern education makes men very beghairat.


He is set to release some very interesting films, which he describes as happy-go-lucky movies. Aapkopatahaiaajkal happy films ka zamanahai.


My colleagues kept worrying that piracy ho rahi hay we should stop it; I kept saying, "hooney do".


And an old friend of hers, a female writer, was so infuriated on being referred to as a ‘Cycle walilarki’ that she broke relations with her for good.


Publications have just become catalogues and designers have become shadi ka jora mills, not aiming to produce delicate pieces any more.


Talk about ‘lakkarhazam, patharhazam’, they deserve a better deal, if only for their patience in eating such swill day after day.


Amjad considered her as ustad se ziyada dost (friend rather than teacher).

(January 22, 2006, Dawn)

What was sworn upon yesterday as guiding principle will be chucked at the alter of expediency tomorrow as mere siyasibayan(political statement).

(January 22, 2006 Dawn)


According to one of them, they were not shunned by the public as lula, langra and apahaj(lame and paralyzed).

(December 04, 2005 Dawn)


A poorhari(the farmer) can be sent to the gallows even on the mild accusation of a crime leveled against him by a noble.

(March 27, 2007, Dawn)

An honorable sardar or wadera (the landlord or chief) can walk free even after proven record of the most heinous kinds of crimes against him.

(March 27, 2007, Dawn)


They alleged that the naibnazim(the vice municipal officer) was receiving threats to force him to part ways with the PPP-backed Awam Dost panel.

(March 04, 2007, Dawn)