Morphology and Syntax. Tree structures. A tree structure reflects the internal structure of complex words, phrases and sentences. V V N en force. V re V V N en force. N V N re V er V N en force. N N s
A tree structure reflects the internal structure of complex words, phrases and sentences.
re V er
re V er
re V N s
en N N
Det AP PP
Adv A N P NP
averystrangecollection of stamps
This very strange collection of stamps and that quite ordinary one
*This very strange collection of stamps and that one of coins
Det AP N’
a Adv A N PP
very strange collection P NP
Det N’ PP
a AP N P NP
Adv A collection of stamps
ALSO OK: NP
NP Infl VP
Given that Infl is the head, you may also call S an InflP, or IP, or AuxP (other names for Infl position are I or Aux).
S (or InflP)
C S (or InflP)
Example of agglutination:
paruka = eat
-bur = 1st person, -bap = 2nd, -pil = 3rd
-kal = plural
-gop = past tense
parukabur = ‘I eat’
parukaburkal = ‘we eat’
parukapil = he/she eats’
parukapilkal = ‘they eat’
parukagoppil = ‘he/she ate’
parukagoppilkal = ‘they ate’
el-imhand-1poss ‘my hand’
el-im-iz hand-1poss-plur ‘our hand’
el-im-iz-i hand-1poss-plur-acc ‘our hand’
(in object function)
paruka = ‘eat’
parukabing = ‘I eat’
parukamoop = ‘you eat’
parukala = ‘I ate’
parukabam = ‘we ate’
grad ‘city’ selo ‘village’ ovca ‘sheep’
sg pl sg pl sg pl
Nominative grad gradovi selo sela ovca ovce
Genitive grada gradova sela sela ovce ovaca
Dative gradu gradovima selu selima ovci ovcama
Accusative grad gradove selo sela ovcu ovce
Instrumental gradom gradovima selom selima ovcom ovcama
Locative gradu gradovima selu selima ovci ovcama
Some languages have nominative case and accusative case.
Some other languages have ergative case and absolutive case.
Nominative case marks subjects.
Accusative case marks objects.
The woman-NOM laughed.
The woman-NOM read the book-ACC.
Ergative case marks subjectsof transitive verbs.
Absolutive case marks objectsof transitive verbs AND ALSO subjects of intransitive verbs.
The woman-ABS laughed.
The woman-ERG read the book-ABS.
Him saw she. (meaning ‘he saw her’)
What’s the difference?
THE difference is: Class I affixes influence the stress pattern of the word they attach to. Class II affixes do not.
Often (but not always) Class I affixes are closer to the stem then Class II affixes (when both occur).
Claire wants to go shopping.
The verb in the main sentence, wants, takes a non-finite clause as its complement here: a VP headed by the infinitive to go.
NP Infl VP
to go shopping
‘Movement’ is a metaphor for the phenomenon that something with a particular grammatical function is not in the position in the sentence that elements with that function normally are, but instead goes into a ‘special’ position in the sentence structure.
The notation using ‘movement’ and empty positions is one way (among others) of keeping track of the grammatical function of the ‘moved’ element.
Why this phenomenon exists is a different matter.
Differences between ‘multiple wh-movement’ in Bulgarian and Czech.
Generalized verb movement to C.
In English, verb movement to the C position is limited to
(i) Interrogative sentences
(ii) Auxiliary verbs
*Which string quartet heard George yesterday?
Which string quartet did George hear yesterday?
Hvad koster en billet?
what costs a ticket
‘What does a ticket cost?’
*Hvad gør en billet koste?
what does a ticket cost
Denne film har børnene set.
this film have children seen
‘The children have seen this film (rather than another one)’.
*Denne film børnene har set.
this film children have seen
*This film have the children seen.
This film the children have seen.
C S (= InflP)
Contradicted by Icelandic and Yiddish.