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Morphology and Syntax. Tree structures. A tree structure reflects the internal structure of complex words, phrases and sentences. V V N en force. V re V V N en force. N V N re V er V N en force. N N s

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tree structures
Tree structures

A tree structure reflects the internal structure of complex words, phrases and sentences.

V

V N

en force

slide3
V

re V

V N

en force

slide4
N

V N

re V er

V N

en force

slide5
N

N s

V N

re V er

V N

en force

slide6
WRONG:

N

V N

re V N s

en N N

force er

slide7
OK: NP

Det AP PP

Adv A N P NP

averystrangecollection of stamps

slide8
This very strange collection of stamps and that one

This very strange collection of stamps and that quite ordinary one

*This very strange collection of stamps and that one of coins

slide9
SO ALSO OK: NP

Det AP N’

a Adv A N PP

very strange collection P NP

of stamps

slide10
WRONG: NP

Det N’ PP

a AP N P NP

Adv A collection of stamps

very strange

slide12
Sentences in English:

OK:

S

NP Infl VP

Given that Infl is the head, you may also call S an InflP, or IP, or AuxP (other names for Infl position are I or Aux).

slide13
ALSO OK (if we want to make sentences fit into the ‘X bar’ schema for phrase structure):

S (or InflP)

NP Infl’

Infl VP

full sentence structure
Full sentence structure

CP

C’

C S (or InflP)

NP Infl’

Infl VP

V’

V

agglutination versus fusion
Agglutination versus Fusion

Example of agglutination:

paruka = eat

-bur = 1st person, -bap = 2nd, -pil = 3rd

-kal = plural

-gop = past tense

parukabur = ‘I eat’

parukaburkal = ‘we eat’

parukapil = he/she eats’

parukapilkal = ‘they eat’

parukagoppil = ‘he/she ate’

parukagoppilkal = ‘they ate’

slide16
el hand‘hand’

el-imhand-1poss ‘my hand’

el-im-iz hand-1poss-plur ‘our hand’

el-im-iz-i hand-1poss-plur-acc ‘our hand’

(in object function)

slide17
Fusion:

paruka = ‘eat’

parukabing = ‘I eat’

parukamoop = ‘you eat’

parukala = ‘I ate’

parukabam = ‘we ate’

slide18
masculine neuter feminine

grad ‘city’ selo ‘village’ ovca ‘sheep’

sg pl sg pl sg pl

Nominative grad gradovi selo sela ovca ovce

Genitive grada gradova sela sela ovce ovaca

Dative gradu gradovima selu selima ovci ovcama

Accusative grad gradove selo sela ovcu ovce

Instrumental gradom gradovima selom selima ovcom ovcama

Locative gradu gradovima selu selima ovci ovcama

ergative case and absolutive case
Ergative Case and Absolutive Case

Some languages have nominative case and accusative case.

Some other languages have ergative case and absolutive case.

slide20
Nominative/accusative languages:

Nominative case marks subjects.

Accusative case marks objects.

The woman-NOM laughed.

The woman-NOM read the book-ACC.

slide21
Ergative/absolutive languages:

Ergative case marks subjectsof transitive verbs.

Absolutive case marks objectsof transitive verbs AND ALSO subjects of intransitive verbs.

The woman-ABS laughed.

The woman-ERG read the book-ABS.

slide22
If English were an ergative/absolutive language...

She laughed.

Him saw she. (meaning ‘he saw her’)

class i and class ii affixes
Class I and Class II affixes

What’s the difference?

THE difference is: Class I affixes influence the stress pattern of the word they attach to. Class II affixes do not.

Often (but not always) Class I affixes are closer to the stem then Class II affixes (when both occur).

sentences with two or more main verbs
Sentences with two or more main verbs

Claire wants to go shopping.

The verb in the main sentence, wants, takes a non-finite clause as its complement here: a VP headed by the infinitive to go.

slide25
S

NP Infl VP

Claire V’

V VP

wants V’

V VP

to go shopping

why movement
Why ‘movement’?

‘Movement’ is a metaphor for the phenomenon that something with a particular grammatical function is not in the position in the sentence that elements with that function normally are, but instead goes into a ‘special’ position in the sentence structure.

The notation using ‘movement’ and empty positions is one way (among others) of keeping track of the grammatical function of the ‘moved’ element.

Why this phenomenon exists is a different matter.

question 5 of this week s tutorial
Question 5 of this week’s tutorial

Differences between ‘multiple wh-movement’ in Bulgarian and Czech.

question 6 of this week s tutorial
Question 6 of this week’s tutorial

Generalized verb movement to C.

In English, verb movement to the C position is limited to

(i) Interrogative sentences

and

(ii) Auxiliary verbs

*Which string quartet heard George yesterday?

Which string quartet did George hear yesterday?

slide29
In some other languages, verb movement to C can also apply to main verbs...

Hvad koster en billet?

what costs a ticket

‘What does a ticket cost?’

*Hvad gør en billet koste?

what does a ticket cost

slide30
... and verb movement to C also occurs in declarative sentences:

Denne film har børnene set.

this film have children seen

‘The children have seen this film (rather than another one)’.

*Denne film børnene har set.

this film children have seen

*This film have the children seen.

This film the children have seen.

slide31
CP

NP C’

denne film

C S (= InflP)

har

NP Infl’

børnene

Infl VP

e

V’

V NP

set e

slide32
Prediction: if subject-verb inversion is the result of the verb going into the C position of the sentence, then such inversion does not take place in embedded sentences in which the C position is already occupied by a complementizer.

Contradicted by Icelandic and Yiddish.