A 2D-3D Integrated Environment for Cooperative Work. * Kosuke Nakashima 1) , Takashi Machida 1),2) , Kiyoshi Kiyokawa 1),2) , Haruo Takemura 1),2) 1) Information Science and Technology, Osaka University 2) Cybermedia Center, Osaka University. Backgrounds. 3D virtual environments
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A 2D-3D Integrated Environment for Cooperative Work * Kosuke Nakashima1), Takashi Machida1),2), Kiyoshi Kiyokawa1),2), Haruo Takemura1),2) 1) Information Science and Technology, Osaka University 2) Cybermedia Center, Osaka University
Backgrounds • 3D virtual environments • Intuitive recognition • Intuitive manipulation • 2D GUI environments • Limitation of the number of dimensions • Precise recognition (ex. cross section, 2D layout) • Stable manipulation (ex. mouse, light pen) • Multi-user collaborative environments • Encouraging several users to exchange their ideas • Especially in a co-located environment, smooth communication because of nonverbal communication cues such as gestures and facial expressions Various types of environments for 3D modeling
VLEGO2 (Kiyokawa, etc., ’96) NIME (Yoshimori, etc., ’00) ErgoDesk (Forsberg, etc., ’98) Related Work Co-CAD (Gisi, etc., ’94), Teledesign (Shu, etc., ’94) multi-user collaboration 3D 2D Few existing modeling environments integrate all of three features
Goal and Approach • Integration of 3D and multi-user collaboration environments [Display] Multi-user stereoscopic display IllusionHole (Kitamura, etc., ’01) [Manipulation] 6DOF tracker Polhemus Fastrak • Integration of 2D and multi-user collaboration environments [Display] Image projection onto the mask panel and an operation plate [Manipulation] Several Mice on the mask panel A novel modeling environment: 3D +2D + multi-user collaboration • seamless 2D/3D user interface • co-located collaboration
System Configuration 2D image projector Polarized glasses Stick mouse 6DOF Tracker Operation plate 2D server Maskpanel Tracker control Mouse control 3D image rendering 2D image rendering Screen 3D image projectors 3D server IllusionHole LAN
Projector Observer B Obserber A Observer C Mask panel Mask panel Screen IllusionHole Display Device • IllusionHole mechanism • Display size • 2D: 60 inch in diagonal • 3D: 26 cm in diameter
Stick Mouse In 3D work space Mouse Stick Tracker 3D pointing as a 3D input device (3D mode) • Seamlessinput between 2D and 3D workspaces On the mask panel 2D pointing as a normal mouse (2D mode)
Eye point (Projector) E Front clipping plane F Projection direction (Vertical line) B Back clipping plane (Mask panel) 2D image (Operation plate) Operation Plate • Projection frustum for a 2D image on the operation plate Board Tracker The secondary independent 2D work space • Ex. showing amenu, selecting a cross section, etc.
Overview of the Prototype Modeler • 4 Orthogonal viewson the mask panel (2D workspace) • Top, Front, Side andOptional views • Stereoscopic view in the hole (3D workspace) Top view Front view Stereoscopic view Side view Optional view Overview of the modeler Use by two or three users
x x y y Features of the Prototype Modeler (1)Adaptive 2D GUI • Rotation of the coordinate system of each mouse based on the position of the corresponding user • Rotation of each GUI component (mouse cursor and pop-up menu) • Users can manipulate the 2D GUI easily from any position Center of display User
Features of the Prototype Modeler (2)Multiple Mice Support • Support for multiple mice and cursors for collaboration • Simultaneous and independent use of multiple mice • Each user can usehis/her own GUI (cursor and pop-up menu) simultaneously
Features of the Prototype Modeler (3)2D-3D Interoperability • Simultaneous reflection of manipulation from the orthogonal view to the stereoscopic view • Simultaneous reflection of manipulation from the stereoscopic view to the orthogonal view • Users can perform 2D-3D coordinated operations Ex. Creation of an extrude object 1. Orthogonal: Creating a section 2. Stereoscopic: Deciding an axis
Features of the Prototype Modeler (4)Optional View Selection • Interactive selection of an orthogonal view by using an operation plate in the stereoscopic view • Manipulation of an object on the optional view of the mask panel • Users can Intuitively select a 2D view and manipulate on it Ex. Creation of a cross section on the selected view
Features of the Prototype Modeler (5)Plate Menu • Show of a pop-up menu on an operation plate by using a stick mouse in 3D mode • Manipulation of the menu by using a stick mouse • A user can use a 2D menu in 3D mode without the need for moving the cursor to and from 2D workspace frequently
Modeling Functions • Load / Save OBJ format files • Creation of a revolution • Creating a section • Deciding a rotation axis • Creation of an extrusion • Creating a section • Deciding an extrusion axis • Translation, rotation and scaling • Free-form deformation • Making a control grid • Moving control points Extrusion Revolution Free-form deformation
Ongoing WorkPersonal Workspace (1) • Personal workspace for independent activity • Efficient collaboration • Ex. i-LAND (Streitz, etc. ‘99) Public workspace (DynaWall) • Discussion about the ideas • with his/her partners Personal workspace (CommChairs) • Thinking about his/her idea individually
Ongoing WorkPersonal Workspace (2) • Providing of a personal workspace to each user • Standard Windows desktop environment • Any existing application to help for modeling • Data exchange among personal workspaces • Translation, rotation and scaling of personal workspaces Texture mapped Windows desktop
Ongoing WorkSoftware Architecture • Use of VNC technology • OpenGL window and VNC clients run on the 2D server • A VNC client communicates with a VNC server. • The VNC client sends the OpenGL window a remote desktop image from the VNC server. • The image is properly transformed and rendered in the OpenGL window . Raw input devices … Tracker Keyboard Mouse 2D server OpenGL window … VNC client Network VNC server Remote desktop PC Laptop PC Keyboard Mouse
Summary • We proposed a 2D-3D integrated environment for multi-user cooperative modeling • Adaptive 2D GUI • Multiple mice support • 2D-3D interoperability • Interactions using operation plate • Personal workspace • The system effectiveness wasconfirmed informally
Translation • Rotation • Deformation • Making a control grid • Moving control points • Revolution • Creating a section • Deciding an axis • Extrusion • Creating a section • Deciding an axis Movie Clip
Observer B Observer A Observer C Mask panel Screen IllusionHole • Division of the screen for each user • Placement of the mask panel which has a hole in its center over the screen • To Occlude image on the screen drawn for other users Several users can interactively observe stereoscopic views
Our PurposeCollaborative Modeling • Collaborative manipulation • The prototype modeler does not allow several users to manipulate one object simultaneously. • We think such collaborative manipulation is not only a way to support collaboration. • Our purpose • stimulating the discussions among users.
2D-3D interaction • An advantage of 2D environments • The limitation of the number of dimensions. • It is important that both 2D and 3D environments are co-located.
Projector Issue • To increase resolution • use higher resolution projector • use multiple projector • To remove the support of the above projector • set the projector on the ceiling
Scalability • No limit in terms of software • To enlarge 3D image • enlarge the screen size of an IllusionHole • To increase users • need more trackers • IllusionHole issue • Image areas tend to overlap each other • if users increase • if the hole becomes larger • if the gap between the screen and the mask panel becomes larger
Personal Workspace • Our Interest • Interaction issue • In the situation that all the personal workspaces are open to the public • Way to show information to others • Way to exchange data between