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Modeling of Underwater Liquid Releases, Slick Transport & Evaporation. V.M. Fthenakis and U.S. Rohatgi Department of Advanced Technology Brookhaven National Laboratory. Discharge Model. APG Spill from a Barge in Mississipi River -Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Overview.

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Modeling of underwater liquid releases slick transport evaporation

Modeling of Underwater Liquid Releases, Slick Transport & Evaporation

V.M. Fthenakis and U.S. Rohatgi

Department of Advanced Technology

Brookhaven National Laboratory


Modeling of underwater liquid releases slick transport evaporation

Discharge Model Evaporation



Overview
Overview Louisiana

  • Consequence analysis requires modeling of 1) discharge, 2) transport in water, 3) evaporation and 4) atmospheric dispersion

  • Previous discharge models limited to initial hydrostatic pressure difference (Dodge, 1980; Fannelop, 1994) . A new discharge model was developed

  • Oil slick transport in rivers (Shen & Yapa, 1988)

  • Multicomponent evaporation ( PAVE)

  • Atmospheric Dispersion (ALOHA, ISC)


Modeling
Modeling Louisiana

  • Discharge Model

    • Phase 1- Initial hydrostatic pressure difference

    • Phase 2- Periodic vessel movements

  • Verification & Sensitivity Analysis

  • Spreading & Evaporation Model

  • Application to Real Incident

  • Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling

  • Verification of Predicted Concentrations






Discharge model
Discharge Model Louisiana

  • Assumptions:

  • Isothermal Outflow and/or Inflow

  • Incompressible, Immiscible fluids;

  • Ideal gas expansion in the vessel’s void space

  • Based on analytical solutions for non-vented and vented vessels; discharges due to hydrostatic pressure and periodic oscillations from waves and bouncing

    The model predicts

  • Water inflows / fluid-and-water outflows with time

  • Change of void space and fluid inventory with time

  • Change of water level in the barge with time

  • Critical water layer thickness and inventory in steady-state


Discharge model phase 1 verification
Discharge Model -Phase 1 Verification Louisiana

  • Experimental data (Dodge et al., 1980)


Discharge model sensitivity analysis
Discharge Model- Sensitivity Analysis Louisiana

  • Gas-phase pressure

  • Temperature & Saturation Pressure

  • Depth of the break

  • Area of the break

  • Discharge coefficient

  • Fluid density

  • Amplitude of vessel movement

  • Period of vessel movement


River spreading modeling
River Spreading Modeling Louisiana

  • Advection of the slick due to river currents and the wind

  • Spreading of the slick due to gravitational, inertia, viscous and surface tension forces

  • Multi-component evaporation



Evaporation modeling
Evaporation Modeling Louisiana

  • Experimental studies -(crude oil, Payne et al. 1984; chlorobenzene and toluene, Waden and Triemer, 1989)

  • PAVE multi-component evaporation model

  • Diffusion through the liquid phase and mass transfer from surface.

  • Heat conduction to water, convection to the atmosphere, solar radiation, atmospheric radiation and evaporative cooling

  • Verified with chlorobenzene and toluene evaporation data







Spill area after 45 minutes leak lasted 30 minutes
Spill Area after 45 Minutes Louisiana(Leak lasted 30 minutes)




A barge discharge incident
A Barge Discharge Incident Louisiana

  • A barge-tank containing APG overturned in the Mississippi River in March 1997

  • For days the barge was bounced by tugboats & moved by river currents leaking APG from valves under the water

  • Buoyant APG fluid floated to the surface

  • Barge was loaded with ~400,000 gal of APG and lost at least 15% of it during the incident

  • The incident lasted 11 days till barge was upheld and remaining APG recovered




Baton rouge apg spill in mississipi aloha predictions on marplot map
Baton Rouge -APG Spill in Mississipi LouisianaALOHA predictions on MARPLOT map


Cumulative apg dose ppm hr 11 days isc3 predictions
Cumulative APG Dose (ppm-hr) Louisiana11 days -ISC3 predictions


Conclusion
Conclusion Louisiana

  • New model of underwater liquid leaks from vessel in periodic motion.

  • New model of spreading of a river spill.

  • Limited verification and sensitivity analysis showed that predictions are reasonable.

  • The models were applied to a known incident and the predictions were in agreement with observations and measurements.

  • These models may be used in real time to minimize consequences of accidental releases.