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Medical terminology. Part 5 . The skeletal System . Constructed medical terms:.

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Medical terminology

Part 5

The skeletal System

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Constructed medical terms:

Many medical terms are ‘constructed’ from a combination of word parts… prefixes, Greek or Roman root words, and suffixes. Determine the meaning of the whole word by first deciphering the meaning of the suffix, then the prefix, and finally the root word. Then combine the 3 parts.

MICRO / SCOP / IC

Prefix meaning ‘small’ / root word meaning ‘viewing instrument’ / suffix meaning ‘pertaining to’

When you start with a root word and add a suffix that starts with a consonant OR another root word, then you have to connect the two word parts with a vowel. This is called a ‘combining vowel’, and is usually an ‘o, i, or e’.

HEM / O / PHILIA

Root word meaning ‘blood’ / combining vowel / suffix meaning ‘love of’

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Nonconstructed medical terms:

If a medical term is not constructed from a combination of word parts, then it is called ‘nonconstructed’. These are words derived from other languages, words derived from names of people, from initials that form acronyms, or from abbreviations. To learn the meanings of nonconstructed terms, you must simply commit them to memory.

The term ‘pasteurize’ refers to the process of heating milk to a temperature that kills harmful microorganisms. The term is derived from the name of its inventor… Louis Pasteur (1822-1895).

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Medical terms, signs, & symptoms of the skeletal system…

Orthopedic (OR thoh PEE dik)

The branch of medicine focusing on diseases of the skeletal and muscular systems and caused by infections, tumor, endocrine disease, and inherited disorders.

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Medical terms, signs, & symptoms of the skeletal system…

Arthralgia (ahr THRAL jee ah)

Joint pain. A common complaint following injury to a joint.

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Medical terms, signs, & symptoms of the skeletal system…

Genu Valgum (JEE noo VAL gum) Knees angle in and touch each other when legs are straightened. Commonly called

knock-knees.

Both terms are nonconstructed. Genu is Latin for knee.

Genu Varum (JEE noo VAY rum) Outward bowing of the leg, often called bowlegged or bandilegged.

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Achondroplasia (ah kon droh PLAY zee ah)

A genetic disease causing dwarfism. A dwarf or ‘little person’ is an individual with abnormally short limbs and stature.

Twin brothers; the one on the right has achondroplasia.

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Bunion (BUN yun)

A nonconstructed term. An abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the big toe, due to inflammation of a bursa.

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Fracture (FRAK sher) A broken bone. There are numerous types:

A Colles’ (KOH leez) fracture is a break in the distal part of the radius

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Fracture (FRAK sher) A broken bone. There are numerous types:

A comminuted (KOM ih noo ted) fracture results in fragmentation of the bone.

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Fracture (FRAK sher) A broken bone. There are numerous types:

A compression fracture is a crushed break.

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Fracture (FRAK sher) A broken bone. There are numerous types:

In a nondisplaced or oblique fracture, the broken bones retain their alignment.

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Fracture (FRAK sher) A broken bone. There are numerous types:

Hip fracture

A displaced or compound fracture causes abnormal alignment of bone pieces.

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Fracture (FRAK sher) A broken bone. There are numerous types:

An epiphyseal (eh PIFF ih see al) fracture is a break that occurs at the growth plate. The growth plate is at the end of the bone in a child, where a special type of cartilage builds and lengthens the bones as we grow.

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Fracture (FRAK sher)

A broken bone. There are numerous types:

A greenstick fracture is a slight fissure in the bone, but not a complete break.

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Fracture (FRAK sher) A broken bone. There are numerous types:

A Pott’s fracture is a break at the ankle that affects both bones of the leg.

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Fracture (FRAK sher) A broken bone. There are numerous types:

A spiral fracture is a break caused by twisting. When it is found in the arm, it may be investigated as a symptom of abuse.

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Scoliosis (SKOH lee OH siss) A lateral curvature of the spine.

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Lordosis (lor DOH siss) Anterior curve of the spine in the lumbar region.

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Upper thoracic curve of the spine, bends posteriorly… humpback

Kyphosis (kih FOH siss).

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Osteoporosis (OSS tee oh por ROH siss) An abnormal loss of bone density, a common result of aging in postmenopausal women.

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Rickets (RIHK ehts) A lack of adequate calcium and/or Vitamin D in the diet causes this disease and a softening of the bones. When found in a child, it may result in bowed legs and growth retardation.

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Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system…

Osteomyelitis (OSS tee oh my eh LYE tiss) Inflammation of the red bone marrow. This is a painful condition, often caused by a bacterial infection.

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Treatments and Procedures for the skeletal system…

Chiropractic (KIGH roh PRAK tik)

A field of therapy that focuses on the manipulation of bones and joints, especially the spinal column, to give pain relief.

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Treatments and Procedures for the skeletal system…

Orthotics (or THOTT iks)

The field of medicine involving the construction and fitting of orthopedic appliances to assist a patient, such as lifts, artificial limbs, and retraction devices. The medical term for an artificial limb is prosthesis (pross THEE siss).

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Treatments and Procedures for the skeletal system…

Ostectomy (oss TEK toh mee)

The surgical removal of bone tissue. It is performed to remove unwanted bony formations.

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Treatments and Procedures for the skeletal system…

Osteoclasis (oss tee oh KLAY siss)

To deliberately break a bone in order to correct a defect or improperly healed fracture.

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Treatments and Procedures for the skeletal system…

Podiatry (poh DYE ah tree)

The medical specialty that focuses on foot health.

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Abbreviations associated with the skeletal system…

SCI Spinal Cord Injury

Trauma to the vertebral column that may result in paralysis of areas below the vertebral level of the injury.

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Abbreviations associated with the skeletal system…

THR Total Hip Replacement

Replacing the worn or damaged ball or ball and socket feature of the hip with an implant.

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Abbreviations associated with the skeletal system…

TKA Total Knee Arthroplasty (AHR throh PLASS tee)

Surgical repair and implants in a worn or damaged knee.

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Medical terminology

The End

Part 5

The skeletal system