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Word Relations, Sense Relations and Doublets Concepts and forms from Lesson XXII
Word Relations • Words mean what they mean because they contrast with other words or word choices. • Euphemism • Hyperbole • Oppositions: analog watch, acoustic guitar, grandé, economy, superior, satisfactory, whip, mix, frappé, blend, liquefy.
Word Relations • Taxonomy: hierarchical relations • Meronymy: part-whole relations • Synonymy: shared designation • Antonymy: relations of opposition
Kinds of Antonyms • Gradable antonyms • Simple antonyms • Converses • Reverses • Antipodals
Gradable Antonymsversus Simple Antonyms • Gradable antonyms (e.g., young-old, fast-slow) welcome various kinds of intensifers: very, really, extremely, a lot. • Simple antonyms (e.g., male-female, extant-extinct) do not. • Gradable antonyms can both be false. • Simple antonyms cannot both be false.
Gradable Antonymsversus Simple Antonyms • Which of the following pairs of antonyms are simple and which are gradable? • private-public • clean-dirty • enemy-friend • cold-hot • temporary-permanent • young-old • legal-illegal
Sense Relations • A word with two or more possible meanings is called an ambiguous word. • There are two sources of ambiguity: homonymy and polysemy. • A word with multiple possible meanings need not beambiguous; it may simply be vague.
A Test for Ambiguity • Take a sentence containing and. • Assume one sense of your ambiguous word on one side of the and and another sense on the other: Pat went to the bank and so did Leslie, Pat and Leslie went to the bank. • Is the result odd or funny? • If so, the word you’re testing is ambiguous.
Doublets • Definition. A pair of English words descended from a common base in Latin, one of which was borrowed directly from Latin and the other of which came into English via French. • The Frenchified version of the Latinate word tends to have missing or ‘softened’ consonants, and altered vowel qualities, especially diphthongs.
Doublets FACT feat (fait)/fashion (façon) fact/faction REG royal (royale) regal
Can you Guess the Doublet? • Fashion • Chase • Grace • Balm • Comply • Overture • Hostel
New Bases (XXII) • GRAT • MISC, MIXT • MOV, MOT • NEG • PURG • VULG