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Agenda for example. 1. Customer requirements 2. Create concept 3. Define additional needs 4. Complete design 5. Define lower specs and I/Fs 6. Document design. 1. Customer requirements. Problem statement Customer requirements. 1. Customer requirements. Problem statement.

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agenda for example

Agenda for example

1. Customer requirements

2. Create concept

3. Define additional needs

4. Complete design

5. Define lower specs and I/Fs

6. Document design

1 customer requirements
1. Customer requirements
  • Problem statement
  • Customer requirements

1. Customer requirements

problem statement
Problem statement
  • Build a place to live for a family of four with an income of $80,000 per year
  • Build on speculation without specific customer in mind

Applying the design process to a define a place to live

is a good test for the design process because

construction illustrates many aspects of design

1. Customer requirements

customer requirements
Customer requirements
  • A place to live for a family of four
  • Costs less then $225,000

Customer requirements are the result of translating

the customer problem into an agreement about

the final product

1. Customer requirements

2 create concept
2. Create concept
  • Objective
  • Technique
  • Developing concept
  • Outputs of developing concept

2. Create concept

objective
Objective
  • Define the design sufficiently that we can estimate cost and manage project

2. Create concept

technique
Technique
  • Answers three questions
    • What are we going to build?
    • Can we build it?
    • Roughly how much will it cost to develop?
  • Zig-zag back and forth between asking what and then asking how

2. Create concept

developing concept 1 of 9
Developing concept (1 of 9)
  • Questions to determine what to build
    • Why are we building a place to live?
      • Profit of 20 percent
    • What general characteristics must the structure have?
      • Attractive to customers as determined by comparison to similar homes
    • Who is the customer?
      • A man, a wife, and two children

Ask and answer high-level question

to determine what to build

2. Create concept

developing concept 2 of 9
Developing concept (2 of 9)
  • Who is the user?
    • The family
  • What type of structure?
    • House
    • Apartment
    • Hotel
    • Recreational vehicle

2. Create concept

developing concept 3 of 9
Developing concept (3 of 9)

house

apartment

rv

hotel

There are many possible solutions

2. Create concept

developing concept 4 of 9
Developing concept (4 of 9)

house

Using the process for creating a solution,

choose a single solution

2. Create concept

developing concept 5 of 9
Developing concept (5 of 9)
  • Questions to determine if we can build the house and roughly what it will cost
    • How many square feet are in the house?
      • 2500
    • How many stories?
      • Two
    • How many bedrooms?
      • 4

Ask and answer lower-level question to determine if we

can build the house and roughly how much it will cost

2. Create concept

developing concept 6 of 9
Developing concept (6 of 9)
  • How many bathrooms?
    • 3
  • Size of garage?
    • 2 cars
  • Bedroom locations?
    • Downstairs -- master plus one
    • Upstairs -- two

2. Create concept

developing concept 7 of 9
Developing concept (7 of 9)
  • Master bathroom?
    • Closet 1 -- 100 square feet
    • Closet 2 -- 30 square feet
    • Bathtub
    • Shower
    • Enclosed toilet
  • Garage-entry?
    • Rear entry
  • Utility room?
    • Yes

2. Create concept

developing concept 8 of 9
Developing concept (8 of 9)
  • Living areas?
    • Living room
    • Family room
    • Game room
  • Lot?
    • Dimensions
    • Orientations
    • Utility
    • Ally location
    • Existing landscape
    • Drainage

2. Create concept

developing concept 9 of 9
Developing concept (9 of 9)
  • Sink in utility room?
    • Yes
  • Storage under stairs?
    • Yes
  • Storage in attic?
    • 200 square feet, un-air-conditioned
  • Trim?
    • Crown-molding in formal areas
  • Appliances?
    • Middle-of-line, garage door opener

2. Create concept

outputs of concept 1 of 13
Outputs of concept (1 of 13)

Generate design spec to capture answers to questions

2. Create concept

outputs of concept 3 of 13
Outputs of concept (3 of 13)
  • Blueprint
  • Elevations
  • Lot plan
  • Plumbing drawing
  • Electrical drawing
  • HVAC drawing

Create drawings to capture design

2. Create concept

outputs of concept 4 of 13
Outputs of concept (4 of 13)

house

lot

lot prep

found

framing

roofing

plumbing

HVAC

electrical

mason

siding

insul

drywall

trim

painting

cabinet

flooring

appl

land

fence

clean up

materials

Identify lower products

2. Create concept

outputs of concept 5 of 13
Outputs of concept (5 of 13)
  • 1. Lot
  • 2. Lot preparation
  • 3. Foundation and concrete
  • 4. Framing
  • 5. Roofing and gutters
  • 6. Plumbing
  • 7. Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)

2. Create concept

outputs of concept 6 of 13
Outputs of concept (6 of 13)
  • 8. Electrical
  • 9. Masonry
  • 10. Siding
  • 11. Insulation and sound proofing
  • 12. Drywall
  • 13. Trim
  • 14. Painting and wall covering

2. Create concept

outputs of concept 7 of 13
Outputs of concept (7 of 13)
  • 15. Cabinetry and counter tops
  • 16. Flooring, tile, and glazing
  • 17. Appliances
  • 18. Landscape and sprinkling
  • 19. Fence
  • 20. Clean up
  • 21. Materials

2. Create concept

outputs of concept 8 of 13
Outputs of concept (8 of 13)

Define dependencies

2. Create concept

outputs of concept 9 of n
Outputs of concept (9 of N)
  • Plumbing
    • Below-foundation plumbing
    • Foundation
    • Above-foundation plumbing
  • Electrical
    • Below-foundation electrical
    • Foundation
    • Above-foundation electrical
  • Errors in dependencies can be worked around

2. Create concept

outputs of concept 10 of 13
Outputs of concept (10 of 13)
  • Schedule
    • Built up on basis of dependencies

Define schedule

2. Create concept

outputs of concept 11 of 13
Outputs of concept (11 of 13)

Define internal interfaces

2. Create concept

outputs of concept 12 of 13
Outputs of concept (12 of 13)
  • External interfaces
    • Sewage
    • Water
    • Gas
    • Electrical
    • Phone
    • Cable tv

Define external interfaces

2. Create concept

outputs of concept 13 of 13
Outputs of concept (13 of 13)

customer requirements

STUDY

high-level questions and solutions

low-level questions and solutions

drawings

Capture studies and trace leading to design

2. Create concept

3 define additional needs
3. Define additional needs
  • Objective
  • Technique
  • Make product work
  • Meet requirements
  • Make usable and meet needs
  • Provide quality and affordability

3. Define additional needs

objective1
Objective
  • Fill out all the details of the design such that the product can be built

3. Define additional needs

technique1
Technique
  • Expand the four areas in the complete-design step of the design process using models and other idea-solicitation techniques

3. Define additional needs

make product work
Make product work
  • Access to HVAC equipment

3. Define additional needs

meet requirements
Meet requirements
  • Customer
  • User
  • Enterprise
  • Developer
  • Other stakeholder; e.g. building codes, standards, best practices

3. Define additional needs

make usable and meet needs
Make usable and meet needs
  • Lifestyle
  • Traffic patterns
  • Privacy

3. Define additional needs

provide quality and affordability
Provide quality and affordability
  • Energy considerations
  • Reputation
  • Cost
  • Salability
  • COTS
  • Good neighborhood
  • Appearance
  • Flow of money -- bills
  • Environment
  • Convenience
  • Site

3. Define additional needs

4 complete deign
4. Complete deign
  • Objective
  • Technique

4. Complete design

objective2
Objective
  • Complete the design to the point it can be built

4. Complete design

technique2
Technique
  • Implement each requirement and additional needs

4. Complete design

5 define lower specs and i fs 1 of 3
5. Define lower specs and I/Fs (1 of 3)
  • Objective
  • Technique
  • (1) Lot
  • (2) Lot preparation
  • (3) Foundation and concrete
  • (4) Framing
  • (5) Roofing and gutters
  • (6) Plumbing
  • (7) Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

define lower specs and i fs 2 of 3
Define lower specs and I/Fs (2 of 3)
  • (8) Electrical
  • (9) Masonry
  • (10) Siding
  • (11) Insulation and sound proofing
  • (12) Drywall
  • (13) Trim
  • (14) Painting and wall covering

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

define lower specs and i fs 1 of 3
Define lower specs and I/Fs (1 of 3)
  • (15) Cabinetry and counter tops
  • (16) Flooring, tile, and glazing
  • (17) Appliances
  • (18) Landscape and sprinkling
  • (19) Fence
  • (20) Clean up
  • (21) Materials

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

objective3
Objective
  • Flow requirements to each of the lower products to produce a set of requirements for each

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

technique3
Technique
  • Flow down requirements to each lower product
  • Develop a set of steps for each implementing each lower product before and after subcontracting
  • Write a spec that defines the work to be done
  • Define a set of inspections to be performed on each lower product
  • Identify the science involved

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

1 lot
(1) Lot
  • Requirements
    • Lot that satisfies location, orientation, drainage, flood, location, environment, safety, and dimensions
  • Special considerations
    • Purchased separately or provided -- not part of material

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

2 lot preparation
(2) Lot preparation
  • Requirements
    • Land clearing including stumps
    • Excavation and backfill including drainage
    • Marking foundation
    • Trash receptacle
  • Special considerations
    • Excavation paid by hour

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

3 foundation and concrete
(3) Foundation and concrete
  • Requirements
    • Footings, foundation, sidewalks, driveway
    • Water-proofing and drainage
    • Temporary sidewalks
    • Pest control
  • Special considerations
    • Full-service foundation company vs individual subcontractors
    • Type of concrete and reinforcement
    • Weather and climate
    • Interface with plumber and pest control

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

4 framing
(4) Framing
  • Requirements
    • Framing
    • Sheathing
    • Windows and doors
    • Garage door
  • Special considerations
    • Paid by square foot of covered area plus extras
    • May use pre-fabricated components

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

5 roofing and gutters
(5) Roofing and gutters
  • Requirements
    • Roofing
    • Gutters including flashing
  • Special considerations
    • Roofing cost based on squares; gutter based on linear foot; usually separate
    • Gutter goes on after cornice painted and wall finished
    • Type of roof -- wood, asphalt, fiberglass, aluminum, tile, concrete
    • Type of gutter -- aluminum, vinyl

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

6 plumbing
(6) Plumbing
  • Requirements
    • Water
    • Sewer
    • Gas
    • Vent system
  • Special considerations
    • Septic tanks and water wells
    • Dependent upon local building codes
    • Material -- cast iron, copper, PVC, CPCV, polybutylene

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

7 hvac
(7) HVAC
  • Requirements
    • Air-conditioner and furnace
    • Ducts and registers
    • Thermostats, humidifiers, filters
  • Special considerations
    • Cost based on capacity of system
    • Type -- all-electric, heat pump, combination, alternative heating
    • Zoned heating

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

8 electrical
(8) Electrical
  • Requirements
    • Electrical
    • Telephone
    • Alarm
    • Entertainment
    • Computers
    • Temporary service
  • Special considerations
    • Cost determined by number of outlets
    • Wire gauges vary with load

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

9 masonry
(9) Masonry
  • Requirements
    • Bricks and concrete blocks
    • Stucco
    • Fireplaces and mail boxes
  • Special considerations
    • Type of brick
    • Type of stucco -- traditional vs artificial

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

10 siding
(10) Siding
  • Requirements
    • Siding
    • Cornice
  • Special considerations
    • Type of siding -- cedar, plywood, masonite, vinyl, aluminum
    • Type of cornice -- open vs box

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

11 insulation and soundproofing
(11) Insulation and soundproofing
  • Requirements
    • Sheathing
    • Batts
    • Blown-in
    • Soundproofing
  • Special considerations
    • Insulation type -- fiberglass vs cellulose
    • Weather exposure -- sunlight, wind

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

12 drywall
(12) Drywall
  • Requirements
    • Drywall
    • Finishing drywall
    • Texturing
  • Special considerations
    • Dependent upon quality of framing
    • Extra cost for vaulted ceilings, curved wall, and high ceilings

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

13 trim
(13) Trim
  • Requirements
    • Doors, windows, sills, and hardware
    • Molding
    • Stairway
    • Fireplaces and mantels
    • Shelves and hangars
  • Special considerations
    • Pay by opening, cut, hour, or job
    • Quality of interior determined by trim

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

14 painting and wall covering
(14) Painting and wall covering
  • Requirements
    • Painting
    • Caulking
    • Wall covering
  • Special considerations
    • Type of paint -- oil, stain, latex
    • Characteristics of wood
    • Exterior wood finishes
    • Suitability of finishing methods
    • Method of application -- paint, roller, spray

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

15 cabinetry and countertops
(15) Cabinetry and countertops
  • Requirements
    • Kitchen cabinets
    • Bathroom cabinets
    • Countertops and vanity tops
  • Special considerations
    • Type -- custom-built vs pre-fabricated

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

16 flooring tile and glazing
(16) Flooring, tile, and glazing
  • Requirements
    • Carpet
    • Wood
    • Vinyl
    • Tile
    • Glazing
  • Special considerations
    • Type of flooring
    • Stability of foundation

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

17 appliances
(17) Appliances
  • Requirements
    • Stoves and microwave
    • Dish washer
    • Garbage disposal
    • Vacuum system
    • Intercom
    • Garage door opener
  • Special considerations
    • In same category as material

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

18 landscape and sprinklers
(18) Landscape and sprinklers
  • Requirements
    • Grading and draining
    • Retaining walls
    • Lawn
    • Plants
    • Sprinkler system
  • Special considerations
    • Weather survivability
    • Energy savings
    • Erosion protection

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

19 fence
(19) Fence
  • Requirements
    • Poles
    • Fences
    • Gates
    • Preservative
  • Special considerations
    • Type of pole, material, and fence

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

20 clean up
(20) Clean up
  • Requirements
    • Make house ready to sell
  • Special considerations
    • Disposition of trash

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

21 materials
(21) Materials
  • Requirements
    • All material not supplied by a subcontractor
    • >400 types of materials
  • Special considerations
    • Cost -- bids are better than estimates
    • Delivery -- just-in-time vs total
    • Protection -- weather, fire, and theft

5. Define lower specs and interfaces

6 document design
6. Document design
  • Objective
  • Technique
  • Documentation components

6. Document design

objective4
Objective
  • Capture the design description, the supporting analysis, and the management in written format

6. Document design

technique4
Technique
  • Capture each design requirement
  • Capture each design study
  • Trace design requirements to higher requirements that they verify

6. Document design

documentation components 1 of 2
Documentation components (1 of 2)

design

design description

supporting

analysis

management

including

tracing

Design is documented as (1) design description,

(2) supporting analysis, and (3) management including

tracing

6. Document design

documentation components 2 of 2
Documentation components (2 of 2)
  • Design description
    • Customer requirements
    • Design requirements
    • Drawings
    • Bill of material
  • Supporting analysis
    • All studies
    • Cost summary
  • Management
    • Trace

6. Document design