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slide4

How do mental functions map on to the brain? During the 1940's and 1950's, the brilliant Canadian neurosurgeon Wilder Penfield performed extensive brain surgeries on patients with local anaesthetic. During the operations, he stimulated specific regions of the patients' brains with an electrode and simply asked them what they felt. All kinds of sensations, images, and even memories were elicited by the electrode, and the somatosensory areas of the brain that were responsible could be mapped. Penfield concluded that memories left permanent imprints on the brain. (also called engrams) Among other things, Penfield found a narrow strip running from top to bottom down both sides of the brain where his electrode produced sensations localized in various parts of the body. This "sensory homunculus," as it is now called, forms a greatly distorted representation of the body on the surface of the brain, with the parts that are particularly important taking up disproportionately large parts. (see image below) (see also body image ) For the most part, the map is orderly but upside down. However, the map is not entirely continuous. The face is not near the neck, where it should be, but is below the hand. The genitals, instead of being between the thighs, are located below the foot.

  • Higher order functions (such as memory, attention, emotion, thought, consciousness, identity) require large-scale or global processes in the brain. While many activities of the brain are functionally segregated and localized, activity is synchronized and coordinated despite the lack of a central coordinatory area.
  • The left side of the cortex relates most directly to the right side of the body and vice versa. Smell is an exception. The right side of the nose connects to the right side of the brain.
  • A century of clinical neurology has shown clearly that the two hemispheres are specialized for different mental capacities. The most striking asymmetry involves language. The left hemisphere (for virtually all right-handed people and most left-handers) is specialized not only for the actual production of speech sounds but also for the imposition of syntactic structures on speech and for much of what is called semantics - comprehension of meaning.
  • The right hemisphere, on the other hand seems to be concerned with more subtle aspects of language such as nuances of metaphor, allegory, and ambiguity. A person with an extensive stroke to the left hemisphere but with an undamaged right-side brain may still be able to swear and even sing. Such a person may still be able to distinguish a male voice from a female voice.
  • Other obvious specializations involve vision and emotion. The right hemisphere is concerned with holistic aspects of vision and with the appropriate emotion to evocative situations.
  • http://christianhubert.com/writings/brain.html Text and Images
slide5

A German Shepherd has 225 million scent receptors while a human has only 5 million.  The percent of a dog’s brain devoted to analyzing smells is 40 times larger than that of a human.  It is estimated that dogs can smell somewhere between 1,000 to 100,000 times better than humans.

  • Of dogs: Blood hounds are #1, followed by Basset hounds for being the best sniffers.

Which animals do you think are the worlds best for:

Sight

Smell

Hearing

Taste

Touch

slide7

Smell 3:

Best Bird Sense of Smell

Smell 1:

Best Sense of Smell

Smell 2:

Best Underwater Sense of Smell

Smell 4:

Best Landmine Sense of Smell

slide9

Smell 6:

Best

Sniffer Detective

Smell 7:

Best Mate Sense of Smell

Hearing 1:

Best Natural Sonar System

Smell 5:

Best Air Sniffer

slide11

Hearing 2:

Best Navigator Using Sound

Taste 3:

Turbocharged Taste Buds

Taste 2:

Best Tasting With

Their Feet

Taste 1:

What Can Humans Taste?

(5 things)

slide13

Hearing 6:

Best Hearing Defense

Hearing 5: Sharpest Hearing

Hearing 4:

Best Rain Detector by Hearing

Hearing 3:

Cats versus Dogs?

slide15

Taste 4:

I Can’t Taste Sweets

Taste 7:

I Have the Strangest Taste

Taste 5:

Chocolate

Kills Me

Taste 6:

I Love the Taste of Fat

slide17

Touch 4:

Most Sensitive (Touchy)

Nose

Touch 3:

Deadly Vibration Detection

Touch 2:

Best Earthquake Detector

Touch 1:

Best Fire Detector

slide19

Touch 8:

Most Sensitive Hairs

Touch 7:

Good Vibrations

Touch 6:

Best “Touch at a Distance”

Touch 5:

Best Whiskers

slide21

Vision 3:

Best Bird Night Vision

Sharpest Vison Facts

Vision 1:

Best Thermal Vision

Vision 2:

Best Mammal Night Vison

slide23

Vision 7:

Best Underwater Vision

Vision 6:

Sharpest Vision

Vision 4:

Best Looking All Around

Vision 5:

Best Motion Detectors

slide25

Vision 11:

Best Independent Vision

Vision 10:

Best Colour Vision

Vision 8:

Looking UP, Looking Down

Vision 9:

Most Eyes

slide26

LargestFastestSmartest.com

  • Best camouflaged, largest and heaviest, longest & tallest, smallest
  • Coldest, deepest, highest, hottest, oldest, on the farm
  • Best athletes, builders, medics, deadliest, fastest, strongest
  • Best and worst friends, parents
  • Greediest, smelliest
slide28

Taste Facts

Who can taste better than us?

Smartest Facts

Smartest Ape

Smartest 1:

Smartest Memory

Smartest 2:

In the Ocean

slide30

Smartest 3:

Smartest

After Us

Smartest 6:

Biggest Brain For Body Size

Smartest 5:

Smartest Bug

Smartest 4:

Smartest Bird