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Ivar Tormod Berg Ørstavik. Programmering som skrivepraksis. Mål for dagen. Dele en annerledes opplevelse av dataprogram. Dele en glede i å se at "framtidas" skriveteknologi kanskje ikke er så forskjellig fra "gårsdagens" likevel.

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m l for dagen
Mål for dagen

Dele en annerledes opplevelse av dataprogram.

Dele en glede i å se at "framtidas" skriveteknologi kanskje ikke er så forskjellig fra "gårsdagens" likevel.

Vise hva programmeringsfaget kan tilføre humanistisk forskning på tekst og skriving, og vice versa.

plan for dagen
Plan for dagen

Analyse av en programtekst i kontekst.

  • Hvordan kan programtekster forstås som komposisjoner som referer til og er i dialog med andre programtekster?

Kronotop – en meget kort introduksjon

  • Hvordan bygger programmeringsspråk oppunder forskjellige kronotoper?
slide5

risvollan

8

lerchendal

samf

dronningen

berg

dragvoll

5

addressivity
‘addressivity’

Each individual utterance is a link in the chain of speech communication. [The utterance reflects] others’ utterances, and, above all, preceding links in the chain (sometimes close and sometimes […] very distant). […] The utterance is addressed not only to its own object, but also to others’ speech about it. (Bakhtin 1986: 93f).

addressivity1
‘addressivity’

Each individual utterance is a link in the chain of speech communication. [The utterance reflects] others’ utterances, and, above all, preceding links in the chain (sometimes close and sometimes […] very distant). […] The utterance is addressed not only to its own object, but also to others’ speech about it. (Bakhtin 1986: 93f).

addressing the past present and future
Addressing the past, present, and future

The utterance is related not only to preceding, but also to subsequent links in the chain of speech communion. When a speaker is creating an utterance, of course, these links do not exist. But from the very beginning, the utterance is constructed while taking into account possible responsive reactions, for whose sake, in essence, it is actually created. (Bakhtin 1986: 94).

the generalized other s texts
The generalized other’s texts

This addressee can be an immediate participant-interlocutor in an everyday dialogue, a differentiated collective of specialists in some particular area of cultural communication, a more or less differentiated public, ethnic group, contemporaries, like-minded people, opponents and enemies, a subordinate, a superior, someone who is lower, higher, familiar, foreign, and so fourth. And it can also be an indefinite, unconcretized other (Bakhtin 1986: 95).

the generalized other s texts1
The generalized other’s texts

This addressee can be an immediate participant-interlocutor in an everyday dialogue, a differentiated collective of specialists in some particular area of cultural communication, a more or less differentiated public, ethnic group, contemporaries, like-minded people, opponents and enemies, a subordinate, a superior, someone who is lower, higher, familiar, foreign, and so fourth. And it can also be an indefinite, unconcretized other (Bakhtin 1986: 95).

grammaticalization
Grammaticalization

[Grammaticalization refers] to the change whereby lexical items and constructions come in certain linguistic contexts to serve grammatical functions and, once grammaticalized, continue to develop new grammatical functions (Hopper 1993: 18).

The more general the ‘other’ is, the more the other resembles words and grammar in language. Language understood as an ultimate(?) generalization.

chronotope
Chronotope
  • ”The chronotope, functioning as the primary means for materializing time in space, emerges as the center for concretizing representation, as a force giving body to the entire novel. All the novel’s abstract elements – philosophical and social generalizations, ideas, analyses of cause and effect – gravitate towards the chronotope and through it take on flesh and blood, permitting the imaging power of art to do its work.”
chronotope1
Chronotope
  • an analytical category
  • “the intrinsic connectedness of temporal and spatial relationships that are artistically expressed in literature” (Bakhtin 1981: 84).
  • not used to describe the entire fictional worlds as we imagine them.
  • only used to describe the imagined time-space relationships or systems that are constructed together with these fictional worlds in order to sustain them.
chronotope2
Chronotope
  • “The image of man is always intrinsically chronotopic” (Bakhtin 1981: 85),
  • but the chronotope too “is always related to people“ (Bostad 2004: 173).
  • Chronotopes must be viewed in relation to a person, an ‘image of man’, a participant, a programme or some other ‘actor(s)’ that can fill the chronotope with life and meaning.
kronotopene for greske helter
Kronotopene for greske helter
  • [The heroes] have gone through something, something that did not, indeed, change them but that did (in a manner of speaking) affirm what they, and precisely they, were as individuals, something that did verify and establish their identity, their durability and continuity. The hammer of events shatters nothing and forges nothing – it merely tries the durability of an already finished product. And the product passes the test. (Bakhtin 1981: 106-7)
kronotopene i java vs prolog
Java

int var = 2; var = var + 1;

Variabler kan bindes flere ganger.

Skaper flere former for kohesjon

Skaper en avhengighet i tid og dermed tidslinje.

’beads on a string’

Prolog

Var is 2, Var is Var + 1

Variabler kan bare bindes en gang.

Skaper også kohesjon

Men en langt svakere avhengighet i tid og egentlig ingen tidslinje.

’beads in a bowl’

Kronotopene i Java vs. Prolog
kronotopene i java vs prolog1
Java

’beads on a string’

Programmet er ’helten’

Programmet går gjennom sitt environment run-time.

Tidslinja skaper et handlingsforløp.

Prolog

’beads in a bowl’

Programmet er ’helten’

Noen Prolog program (f.eks. bus.pl) går gjennom sitt environment trinn for trinn (rekursivt).

Men noen andre Prolog program beskriver bare miljøet trinnløst (synkront).

Kronotopene i Java vs. Prolog
skriving programmering
Skriving + Programmering = ?
  • Hva kan være skriving? Hva kan være språk? Hva er det vi forstår som skriving og språk?
  • Programmering er ”polyphony in action”, intertekstualitet++, kronotopn, et karnevalesk studieobjekt for dialog.
  • Og programmering er god, gammeldags kommunikasjon og dialog og tekst. Hva kan vi ikke anvende i programmering om det vi har funnet ut om ”vanlig” skriving?
doing program words
Doing program words
  • Language is socially constructed.
  • ”[Language] is populated with the intentions of others”
  • Actions and perceptions as compositions of others’ voices
    • heteroglossia
    • ventriloquism‏
  • Social interaction or structuresin motion are seen not only side by side with language, but also as within language itself.