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THE ARM UAV Program: Past, Present and Future. Greg M. McFarquhar 1 and Will Bolton 2 1 University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 2 Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA. Funded by ARM UAV Program. Outline. Overview of ARM UAV Program Instruments for Cloud Research

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slide1

THE ARM UAV Program:

Past, Present and Future

Greg M. McFarquhar1 and Will Bolton2

1University of Illinois, Urbana, IL

2Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA

Funded by ARM UAV Program

slide2

Outline

  • Overview of ARM UAV Program
  • Instruments for Cloud Research
  • New Science Issues UAVs can address
arm uav program objectives
ARM UAV Program Objectives

The ARM-UAV Program was established by DOE to

  • address the largest source of uncertainty in global warming:

the interaction of clouds and solar/thermal energy

  • support the climate change community with valuable data sets
  • develop measurement techniques and instruments suitable for use with the new class of high altitude, long endurance UAVs
  • demonstrate these instruments and measurement techniques in field measurement campaigns
slide4

ARM-UAV has conducted ten major field campaigns

GA-ASI “GNAT 750”

(F93, S94)

Field Campaigns to date:

  • Fall 1993, Edwards AFB, CA
  • Spring 1994, Northern OK
  • Fall 1995, Northern OK
  • Spring 1996, Northern OK
  • Fall 1996, Northern OK
  • Fall 1997, Northern OK
  • Spring 1999, PMRF Kauai, HI
  • Summer 1999, Monterey, CA
  • Winter 2000, Northern OK
  • Fall 2002, Northern OK

Grob “Egrett”

(F95, S96)

GA-ASI “Altus I” (F96, F97)

GA-ASI “Altus II”

(Su99)

Twin Otter

(F93, S94, F95, S96, F96,

F97, Sp99, Su99, W00)

slide5

Currently using Proteus, available from Scaled Composites, in piloted mode; flies to over 50 kft; 6900 kg payload; ~20 h duration

current suite of instruments
Current Suite of Instruments
  • Passive remote sensing (14 instruments)
  • Active remote sensing (2 instruments)
  • In-situ Microphysics (4 instruments)
  • Atmospheric State (5 instruments)
slide7

Proteus Payload -Passive Remote Sensing

  • Broadband Radiometers Package (BRP)
    • CM-22 pyranometers, 0.3 – 4um (zenith level, zenith fixed, nadir, nadir covered)
    • CG-4 pyrgeometers, 4 – 40 um (zenith level, nadir, nadir covered)
  • Spectral Radiance Package (SRP)
    • nadir mounted, NFOV
    • VIS 0.38-1 um, 2nm res,
    • A-Band 0.75-0.85 um, 0.07nm res
    • NIR 1.3-1.5 um, 2nm res
  • Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR)
    • nadir & zenith, hemispheric FOV
    • 300–1700 nm
  • The Diffuse Field Camera (DFC)
    • VIS: 1300 x 1030 pixels x 12 bit, 645 nm center with 50 nm total bandpass
    • NIR: 320 X 256 pixels x 12 bit, 1610 nm center with 60 nm total bandpass
  • Scanning High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (S-HIS)
    • scanning interferometer,high spectral resolution (0.5 cm-1)
    • Spectral Coveragebetween 3.3 and 18.0 µm
slide8

Stabilized Platform for High Altitude Remote Sensing

  • First flown in 2002
  • Level to ±.02o
  • Improved data quality anddata range (±2 to ±5o)
  • Significantly reduces post processing time

Location of Stabilized platform

slide9

Stabilized platform roll

less than ±0.02o

Aircraft roll ±3o

slide11

Proteus Payload - Active Remote Sensing

  • 95 GHz Compact Millimeter Wave Radar (CMR)
    • sensitivity of –42 dBZ at 1 km
  • Cloud Detection Lidar (CDL)
  • 1.053 µm at 5 kHz , 48 µJ/pulse

CDL

CMR

slide13

Proteus Payload -In-situ Instrumentation

  • MET Package
    • Buck Research CR-2 Cryogenic Hygrometer, -100oC, 20 s response
    • Near-ir laser absorption spectrometery, 1 ppmv, 50 Hz response
    • Micro Air Data Transducer (MADT)
      • static pressure, differential pressure, total air temp,
      • static air Temp, dh/dt, height, true air speed, indicated air speed
  • Best Aircraft Turbulence Probe
    • measured wind speed and direction at 50 Hz
  • Cloud, Aerosol, and Precipitation Spectrometer
    • cloud and aerosol spectrometer (CAS: 0.35 – 50 µm)
    • cloud imaging probe (CIP: 25 – 1550 µm)
    • liquid water content detector (LWC: 0.01 – 3 gm-3)
  • Cloud Integrating Nephelometer (CIN)
    • measures asymmetry parameter and extinction coefficient
  • Video Ice Particle Sampler (VIPS)
    • sizes between 10-200 μm
  • Nevzorov Probe (NEV), LWC, TWC
    • 0.003 – 3 gm-3, sensitivity: 0.003 gm-3

NEV

pitot

VIPS

CR-2

TAT

CIN

CAPS

slide14

VIPS: Measuring Crystal Shape & Size Distributions

Size distribution generated through automatic particle recognition from NIH software

slide15

Future Missions

  • Fall 04, North Slope Alaska (NSA)
    • vertical structure of mixed-phase clouds
  • Winter 06, Tropical western Pacific (TWP)
    • cirrus/radiative interactions associated with monsoon convection

www.arm.gov

have uavs reached full potential
Have UAVs reached full potential?
  • No:

UAV cost, reliability/maintenance, availability, and airspace access need to improve

BUT:

UAVs offer unique capabilities for important science applications

Equipment and operational capabilities have been developed

science issues for uavs
Science Issues for UAVs
  • What can be done if we had routine long duration UAV flights that we cannot do now?
aerosol cloud vertical profiles
Aerosol/Cloud Vertical Profiles
  • Representing vertical distributions of aerosols, their mixing scenarios, size distributions & single-scattering properties crucial for different regions
    • Includes measurements in cloud layers!
  • Observations needed in many different regions
    • Different vertical profiles & meteorological forcing
  • Critical for radiative and thermodynamic forcing of aerosols
  • How representative are surface aerosol measurements of aerosol properties in cloud layers?
complete life cycles parcel studies
Complete Life Cycles/Parcel Studies
  • Satellites have at best hourly resolution and can’t resolve fine-scale phenomena
    • Trade wind cumuli have pretty short life cycles
  • Field observations don’t allow us to track complete life cycle (e.g., evolution of anvil associated with deep convection in Tropics)
  • Long duration platform might allow to track Saharan dust event, or brown cloud from Asia as it transits Pacific
scaling issues
Scaling Issues
  • Need to go from ground-based measurements to long space/time scales of satellites
  • Field experiments last only hours; satellites years long
  • More routine observations in several locations would be helpful
  • E.g., UAV spectral radiance measurements above ground-station would help scale between MODIS type retrievals and ground-based cloud retrievals
summary
Summary
  • Unique set of instruments for airborne in-situ and remote sensing capabilities
  • Upcoming experiments offer unique opportunity for acquiring data on cloud-radiation interactions
  • Ongoing activities will attempt to further take advantage of UAV technology
    • Long duration platform for tracking whole life cycle
    • More routine climate tropospheric interactions not currently available
slide22

Proteus performance characteristics

Altitude record (10/25/00): 62,786 feet (peak)

61,919 feet (sustained)

55,786 feet (w/1000 kg payload)

Stall speed: 65 knots

Top speed: 250 knots/M=0.6

Loiter (14,000 lb takeoff wt): 22 hours @ 500 nmi radius 12 hours @ 2000 nmi

slide23

Stable radiometer platform

Boom extension, S-HIS

Canard station,

CIN

Iridium

satellite phone

Canard station,

CAPS

Iridium satellite

data link

Payload pod

ARM-UAV/Proteus payload arrangement