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High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP). Technology presentation. Introduction. The High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) treatment is an athermic decontamination process which consists in subjecting packaged food to water pressures from 100 to 900 MPa.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

HighHydrostaticPressure(HHP)

Technology presentation

slide2

Introduction

The High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP) treatment is an athermic decontamination process which consists in subjecting packaged food to water pressures from 100 to 900 MPa.

The pressure applied is isostatically transmitted inside a pressure vessel.

slide4

Food that can be HHP treated

  • Solid foods, mainly vacuum packed
  • - Dry-cured or cooked meat products
  • - Cheeses
  • - Fish, seafood, marinated products
  • - Ready to eat meals, sauces
  • - Fruits, marmalades / jams
  • - Vegetables
  • Liquid foods, in flexible packaging
  • - Dairy products
  • - Fruit juices
  • - Nutraceutical formulations
slide5

Food that can not be HHP treated

  • Solid foods with air included
  • - Bread
  • - Mousse
  • Packaged foods in completely rigid packaging
  • - In glass
  • - Canned
  • Foods with a very low water content
  • - Spices
  • - Dry fruits
slide6

Main technological effects of HHP in meat products

• About color:

– In fresh or marinated meat, the iron in the myoglobin changes

from ferrous to ferric and globin is denatured: the red color is lost

• About texture:

– Inhibition or stimulation of the proteolytic activity in musclesactivity muscles (depending on processing conditions)

– Proteins are partially denaturized in products where proteins have not been previously modified by other process: heating, drying, fermentation …

• About fats and lipids:

– Reversible crystallization

slide7

Treated beef samples (1)

Top view of the fresh and frozen beef samples treated by HHP

slide8

Treated beef samples (2)

Cooked samples: view from the top (a); view of the inside (b)

slide9

Treated commercial beef products samples

Commercial beef products before and after HHP treatment

slide10

Processing or formulation factors that can modify the effect of high pressure (1)

• Temperature:

– High temperatures increase the effect of high pressure against

microorganisms and meat components

– Sub-zero temperatures can protect fish products components,

keeping reasonable microbial inactivation capacitykeeping capacity

• pH:

– Low pH values increase the effect of high pressure against

microorganisms and meat components

slide11

Processing or formulation factors that can modify the effect of high pressure (2)

• Bacteriocins:

– Some bacteriocins, and specially nisin, are very effective combined with high pressure, even on Gram – bacteria

• Water activity:

– With higher water activity, more effectiveness of high pressure processing, but also more recovery from sub lethally injured microorganisms

slide12

Processing or formulation factors that can modify the effect of high pressure (3)

• Preservatives:

– Lactate addition reduce the initial inactivation of the microorganisms but it delays its later recovery

• Combination with other technologies:

– Combined processes can improve high pressure effects on microorganisms

slide13

Benefits of high pressure

  • Adapted to sanitize products where heat processing is inappropriate (dry cured ham, fermented meat products, sliced ready to eat meat products, etc.)
  • Alternative to heat treatments to process foods, inactivating micro organisms without changing the sensory qualities or the nutritional values of foods
slide14

Other advantages of high pressure

  • Very low use of energy
  • No residues: uses only tap water
  • Safe for workers
  • Accepted by consumers and retailers
  • Does not produce
  • – new chemical compounds
  • – radiolytic by-products
slide17

Economic data

  • (a) Filled at 50% volume and processing time 3 minutes at 600 MPa
  • (b) Calculated for 5 years depreciation, production 280 days/year, 16 h/day
slide18

Industrial motivations to use High Hydrostatic Pressure treatment

• Higher microbiological safety

– Significant reduction of the risks associated with the presence and growth of pathogens

– Additional preservation treatment applied to the products after packaging

• Better sensorial quality

– Significant reduction of the sensorial risks associated to the presence and growth of alteration microorganisms (fresher flavour)

slide19

Reasons for the industrial use of HHP

• Consumer satisfaction

– Fresher flavor

– Healthy or convenient attributes

• Legal requirements

– Related to food safety

– Related to export regulations

• As a reaction in front a food crisis

• To meet costumers’ specifications

• Shelf life extension

• Image of innovative company

– Both to retailers and end users

– Producing safer and reliable products

• Technology fully accepted by consumers

slide21

Examples of uses of HHP

Cooked meat: cooked ham, roasted chicken, turkey breast, cooked sausages

slide23

Obstacles for the implementation of HHP (1)

• Low level of public knowledge about the technology

• Attitude of the public administrations in Europe

– Legal risk perception: no explicit authorization in most cases

– Lack of an explicit support for a wider use of the technology

• Image of high cost

– Real costs are lower than perceived costs

– Need of processing centers providing HPP contract processing

to SME’s

• False image of high technological sophistication

slide24

Obstacles for the implementation of HHP (2)

• Reduced number of suppliers for equipments

– More options available would encourage a more active market

• Perception of economical risk

– Doubts about mechanical and structural reliability (unjustified)

– Some fear about the usual quick obsolescence for the first

versions of industrial equipments

– Initial high investment cost (mainly for big companies with need

for simultaneous purchasing of multiple equipments)

– It explains why the average user of high pressure is a medium

size company managed by the owners

– It’s necessary to offer to food companies approved protocols and process validation services for different food matrixes