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Impaired and Distracted Driving by South Dakota Youth Lee Axdahl Accident Records Supervisor South Dakota Office of High PowerPoint Presentation
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Impaired and Distracted Driving by South Dakota Youth Lee Axdahl Accident Records Supervisor South Dakota Office of Highway Safety. Vehicles have many safety features… Seatbelt and shoulder straps Air-bags Padded dashboards Safety glass Anti-locking brakes, and

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Presentation Transcript
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Impaired and Distracted Driving by South Dakota YouthLee AxdahlAccident Records SupervisorSouth Dakota Office of Highway Safety

slide2
Vehicles have many safety features…
  • Seatbelt and shoulder straps
  • Air-bags
  • Padded dashboards
  • Safety glass
  • Anti-locking brakes, and
  • Collapsible steering columns …but…
slide3
Recent years have seen new driving challenges…
  • Increased traffic congestion on our roads …
  • Many new technologies are now available for use in automobiles …
  • One technology particularly surrounded by debate is the cell phone (and MP3 players) …
generally accepted distracted driving realities
Generally Accepted Distracted Driving Realities…
  • Multitasking results in multiple tasks competing for a driver’s attentional resources …and…
  • Multitasking while driving results in less efficient visual search, slower reaction times, and fewer and shorter eye fixations.

George Mason University Study

is that the only problem
Is That The Only Problem?
  • Another factor is the inability of most young drivers to adequately assess and respond to risk. Why?
  • The frontal brain lobe is responsible for cognitive functions that control life-saving behavior such as hazard anticipation and risk management. And?
  • Brain imaging studies show this lobe does not fully develop until drivers are 25.
a south dakota example
A South Dakota Example…

CRASH REPORT NARRATION:

  • …the driver lost control of the vehicle, entered the east ditch, crossed the fence line and then rolled multiple times. The driver, who was deceased at the scene, was located outside the vehicle. The crash is believed to have occurred numerous hours before discovery.
  • The driver was last seen at approximately 10:30 PM the night before….
  • 609124 – 16 Year Old Male
slide10
Fact:
  • Inexperience behind the wheel is the leading cause of teenage crashes…

NHTSA

south dakota example 2
South Dakota Example #2…

CRASH REPORT NARRATION:

  • …the right rear tire blew out and the driver lost control. Vehicle began to slide sideways crossing the oncoming lane of traffic and entering the north ditch rolling two times.
  • Back seat passenger was ejected out the back window sustaining fatal injuries…
  • 613662 – 18 Year Old Male
slide12
Fact:
  • Approximately two thirds of teens killed in automobile crashes are not wearing seatbelts.

NHTSA

south dakota example 3
South Dakota Example #3…

CRASH REPORT NARRATION:

  • …Vehicle was traveling at a high rate of speed attempting to jump the vehicle on a drainage dip in the roadway. Vehicle hit the dip and became airborne. The driver lost control and swerved to miss a vehicle at the stop sign.
  • …vehicle struck a tree and came to rest on its roof…driver was partially ejected and died at the scene…
  • 614245 - 16 Year Old Male
slide14
Fact:
  • 16 Year Olds have higher crash rates than drivers of any other age.

NHTSA

south dakota example 4
South Dakota Example #4…

CRASH REPORT NARRATION:

  • Vehicle traveling in excess of posted speed limit and over steered the curve causing vehicle to skid and then roll three times along the drainage ditch…vehicle then struck the bottom of the drainage ditch…
  • …driver was ejected from the vehicle and found approximately 80 feet from the roadway…
  • 701708 – 19 Year Old Male
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Fact:
  • Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for teenagers.

NHTSA

south dakota example 5
South Dakota Example #5…

CRASH REPORT NARRATION:

  • …driver drifted off the road into the west ditch for an unknown reason. As unit entered the ditch it collided with a delineator post. After the collision with the post, the driver of the vehicle attempted to bring the unit back onto the roadway and overcorrected, causing her to lose control and roll three times, ejecting both occupants…

709398 – 16 Year Old Female Killed

17 Year Old Male Killed

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Fact:
  • Statistics conclude that 16 & 17 year old driver death rates increase with each additional passenger.

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety

south dakota teenagers safety equipment usage by drivers killed or injured in motor vehicle crashes
South Dakota Teenagers:Safety Equipment Usage By Drivers Killed Or Injured In Motor Vehicle Crashes
south dakota teenagers not bad the last three years are below the 13 year fatality average
South Dakota Teenagers:Not bad…the lastthree years are below the 13 year fatality average!

13.54

south dakota teenagers but it s still them versus us and the picture isn t encouraging
South Dakota Teenagers:But … it’s still “them” versus “us” and the picture isn’t encouraging!
south dakota teenagers and the year to year averages are not in drastic flux lessons being learned
South Dakota Teenagers:And the year to year averages are notin drastic flux … lessons being learned?

31.3

15.0

8.7

you think that s bad
You Think That’s Bad?
  • Don’t even ask about teenagers on motorcycles!
south dakota teenagers percent motorcycle licenses versus percent fatal injury motorcycle crashes
South Dakota Teenagers:Percent Motorcycle Licenses versus Percent Fatal & Injury Motorcycle Crashes
recarte nunes research
Recarte & Nunes Research
  • Published in March, 2000 by the American Psychological Association
  • Recorded the eye movements of drivers while they performed verbal and spatial-visual tasks
  • Also measured how often each driver checked his or her side and rear mirrors and the speedometer
findings
Findings…
  • During visual-verbal tasks unrelated to driving, the driver fixated on certain points longer and glanced less frequently at his/her mirrors and dashboard instruments
  • During visual-verbal tasks, “the driver’s eye freezes up and the visual inspection window decreases, affecting peripheral vision and perception of the environment”
findings29
Findings…

When cognitively complex tasks are performed while driving, the “visual inspection window” decreases between 25-40% horizontally, and 40-60% vertically.

Technical term for the phenomena…

…TUNNEL VISION

findings30
Findings…
  • Therefore, the study finds, that the potential of using a cell phone is one thing (visual task)…add an in-depth conversation requiring considerable mental effort (verbal task) and an already risky behavior is compounded
2002 george mason university distracted driving study
2002 George Mason University Distracted Driving Study:
  • Examine the nature and scope of the distracted driving issue
  • To identify and develop strategies that might help minimize distracted driving
george mason university study
George Mason University Study

RESEARCH FINDINGS:

  • The extent of the distracted driving problem is not clearly defined, validated, or determined and terminology is inconsistent
  • It is not clear how specific behaviors affect driving capacities differently in magnitude or effect
south dakota tasks
South Dakota Tasks?
  • Define “distracted driving” for consistency
      • As it applies to all drivers?
      • As it applies to SDCL?
      • As it applies to enforcement?
  • Categorize “distracted driving” incidents to validate extent of problem
      • Cell Phone related?
      • MP3, etc… related?
      • Traffic related?
south dakota tasks37
South Dakota Tasks?
  • Determine methods to educate drivers
      • Remedial education for existing drivers?
      • Inclusion in Driver’s Education program?
      • Major media reinforcement
  • Legislative or Policy
      • Proposed legislation should be supported by current research
      • The fact that “Distracted Driving” is not an offense inhibits the ability for enforcement to “cite”