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USAID’s Approach to Monitoring Capacity Building Activities . Experiences, lessons learned, and best practices Duane Muller, USAID November 5, 2007 UNFCCC Experts Meeting on Capacity Building St John’s, Antigua. USG commitment to Capacity Building.
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USAID’s Approach to Monitoring Capacity Building Activities Experiences, lessons learned, and best practices Duane Muller, USAID November 5, 2007 UNFCCC Experts Meeting on Capacity Building St John’s, Antigua
USG commitment to Capacity Building • Range of agencies and programs committed to capacity building for climate change • Efforts by industry, states, local governments, universities, schools and NGOs
Types of assistance USAID provides • technical assistance • capacity building & institutional strengthening • training and scholarships • food aid and disaster relief • infrastructure construction • small-enterprise loans • budget support • enterprise funds • credit guarantees
USAID’s Global Climate Change Program Assistance to over 45 countries: • Clean energy technology • Sustainable land use/ forestry • Adaptation to climate change Capacity building=cross cutting
Monitoring & Evaluation Complementary roles
MONITORING Clarify program objectives Link project activities to their resources/objectives Translate into measurable indicators/set targets Collect data on indicators Report on progress EVALUATION Analyzes why and how intended results were/were not achieved Assesses contributions of activities to results Examines results not easily measured Explores unintended results Provides lessons learned/recommendations Monitoring and Evaluation
Experiences with Monitoring Traditional Project Monitoring vs. Performance Monitoring
Traditional Project Monitoring Tells us what is happening: • Are project activities or tasks on schedule? • Is spending consistent with spending plans? “LIMITED FOCUS”
What does performance monitoring involve? • Tools for measurement • Assessment of current situation Performance Baseline Performance Target • Data collection methods
Performance Targets Defines the specific, planned level of result to be achieved for each indicator, within an explicit timeframe. How much? Quantity How good? Quality When? Time
8 Steps to Monitoring • Indicators/Definitions • Data source • Method: data collection • Frequency: data collection 5) Responsibilities: acquiring data 6) Data analysis plans 7) Plans for evaluations 8) Plans for reporting/using performance information
Performance Indicators What works and what doesn’t
OUTPUT Measures immediate things Example: Number of people trained OUTCOME Measures the impact Example: Number of tons of CO2 sequestered Two types of Indicators
Characteristics of Good Performance Indicators • Valid • Reliable • Useful for Management • Adequate • Timely • Practical
4 steps to selecting performance indicators 1) Clarify the results statements 2) Develop a list of possible indicators 3) Assess each possible indicator 4) Select the “best” performance indicator
Performance Indicators can serve as useful tools • Measure inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes and some impacts • Can be integral to a monitoring system • Communicate achievements • Identify problems • Serve as a management tool
Performance Indicators: Limitations • Don’t capture what is going on at the local level • Don’t take into account the enabling environment • Broad indicators can be subjective • Often have policy implications
Lessons Learned: Indicators • Avoid broad statements • Identify targets for change • Study the activities & strategies • Be inclusive • Be selective
Foreign Assistance Reform A New Strategic Framework for Foreign Assistance
The Problem • Foreign assistance has not been strategically focused • Lack of systematic goal and subsequent indicators • Inability to track funds and associated results centrally
Foreign Assistance Coordination and Tracking System (FACTS) Pilot tested in 2007 Instrument for collecting standardized data • improve the coordination and efficiency • increase transparency of assistance funds • improving performance and accountability for results Lessons learned • Feasible • Requires resources and data, takes time, involves communication
Paris Declaration on AID Effectiveness Taking action to strengthen ownership, alignment, harmonization, results and mutual accountability of foreign aid.
Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005) • Over 100 signatories • Capacity development is an endogenous process • Emphasis on indicators at the local level
In sum, we have we learned… • Monitoring is complex • Performance indicators can be useful tools, but there are limitations • FACTS • Considerable resources • Time requirement • Constant dialogue/communication • Refinement with experience
Where do we go from here….. • Is the Paris Declaration effective for capacity building monitoring and evaluation efforts? • Should the ‘country driven approach’ be applied to capacity building monitoring and evaluation efforts?
For further information: Duane Muller USAID EGAT/ESP/GCC Tel 1-202-712-5304 Fax 1-202-216-3174 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Website: www.usaid.gov Keyword: climate change