Subject 1 Study Guide IB 20th Century World History Topics
1. What were the aims of the participants and peacemakers of the Paris Peace Settlement? Wilson and the Fourteen Points?
Paris Peace Conference • The Paris Peace Conference was the meeting of the Allied victors in World War I to set the peace terms for Germany and other defeated nations, and to deal with the empires of the defeated powers following the Armistice of 1918. • They met, discussed and came up with a series of treaties (Peace of Paris Treaties) in an attempt to maintain a lasting peace throughout the world. • At its center were the leaders of the three "Great Powers": President Woodrow Wilson of the United States, Prime Minister David Lloyd George of Britain, and Georges Clemenceau of France. Russia and Germany were not allowed to attend, but thousands of others came, each with a different agenda.
Georges Clemenceau • The chief goal of the French leader, Georges Clemenceau, was to weaken Germany militarily, strategically, and economically. In particular, Clemenceau sought an American and British guarantee of French security in the event of another German attack. Clemenceau also expressed skepticism and frustration with Wilson's Fourteen Points.
Vittorio Orlando • Vittorio Orlando was sent as the Italian representative with the aim of gaining as much territory as possible. The loss of 700,000 Italians and a budget deficit of 12,000,000,000 Lire during the war made the Italian government and people feel entitled to territories.
England • Goals of England: David Lloyd George wanted to maintain the British Empire's unity, holdings and interests, but it entered the conference with the more specific goals of: • Ensuring the security of France • Removing the threat of the German Fleet • Settling territorial contentions • Supporting the Wilsonian League of Nations • with that order of priority.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points • 1. Open covenants of peace. • 2. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas. • 3. Removal all economic barriers. • 4. Reduce armaments. • 5. An adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon popular soveriegnty.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points • 6. The evacuation of all Russian territory and settle all questions affecting Russia. • 7. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored. • 8. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored. • 9. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality. • 10. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development. • 11. Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea. • 12. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty. • 13. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points • 6-13. Specific territorial adjustments • 14. A general association of nations (League of Nations) must be formed under specific covenants for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.
Cartoon “News from the Outside World” - 1924 • Who are the characters in this cartoon? • Origin? • Purpose? • Value? • Limitation? • What is the message this source is portraying?
2. What were the terms of the Paris Peace Treaties 1919‑20: Versailles, St. Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Sèvres/Lausanne 1923?
Treaty of Versailles • The Treaty of Versailles was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers. It was signed on 28 June 1919. Although the armistice signed on 11 November 1918 ended the actual fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. • Of the many provisions in the treaty, one of the most important and controversial required Germany to accept sole responsibility for causing the war (later known as the War Guilt clauses), to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and pay reparations to the Entente powers. The total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion marks ($31.5 billion, £6,600 million) in 1921.
Treaty of Versailles • Article 227 charges former German Emperor, Wilhelm II with supreme offence against international morality. He is to be tried as a war criminal. • The Rhineland will become a demilitarized administered by Great Britain and France jointly. • German armed forces will number no more than 100,000 troops, and conscription will be abolished.
Treaty of Versailles • German naval forces will be limited to 15,000 men, 6 battleships, 6 cruisers, 6 destroyers and 12 torpedo boats. No submarines are to be included. • The manufacture, import, and export of weapons and poison gas is prohibited. • Armed aircraft, tanks and armored cars are prohibited. • Blockades on ships are prohibited. • Restrictions on the manufacture of machine guns and rifles.
Treaty of Versailles perception • Who are the characters in this cartoon? • Origin? • Purpose? • Value? • Limitation? • What is the message this source is portraying?
Who are the characters in this cartoon? • Origin? • Purpose? • Value? • Limitation? • What is the message this source is portraying?
Treaty of Saint Germain • The Treaty of Saint Germain, was signed on 10 September 1919 by the victorious Allies and by the new Republic of Austria. It was not ratified by the United States. • The treaty declared that the Austro-Hungarian Empire was to be dissolved. The new Republic of Austria, consisting of most of the German-speaking Alpine part of the former Austrian Empire, recognized the independence of Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and the State of Slovenes, Croatians and Serbs. The treaty included war reparations of large sums of money, directed towards the allies, to pay for the costs of the war.
Treaty of Trianon • The Treaty of Trianon was the peace treaty concluded in 1920 at the end of World War I by the Allies and Hungary, seen as a successor of Austria-Hungary. The treaty established the borders of Hungary. Hungary lost over 72% of the territory it had previously controlled, which left 64% of the inhabitants, including 3.3 out of 10.7 million (31%) ethnic Hungarians, living outside Hungary. • In addition, the newly established nation of Hungary had to pay war reparations to its neighbors.
Treaty of Neuilly • The Treaty of Neuilly, dealing with Bulgaria for its role as one of the Central powers in World War I, was signed on Nov. 27, 1919 at Neuilly, France. • The treaty required Bulgaria to cede Western Thrace to Greece, thereby cutting off its direct outlet to the Aegean Sea. The treaty also forced Bulgaria to return Southern Doubria, which had been captured during the war. • Bulgaria was also required to reduce its army to 20,000 men, pay reparations exceeding $400 million, and recognize the existence of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
Treaty of Sevres • The Treaty of Sèvres (10 August 1920) was the peace treaty between the Ottoman Empire and Allied at the end of World War I. The treaty nullified the territorial gains of the empire during the war.
3. What were the geopolitical and economic impact of the treaties on Europe; the establishment and impact of the mandate system?
Impact of the Treaty of Versailles • Treaty of Versailles:Clemenceau had failed to achieve all of the demands of the French people, and he was voted out of office in the elections of January 1920. French Field Marshal Ferdinand Foch, declared, "This is not Peace. It is an Armistice for twenty years." • After Wilson's successor Warren Harding continued American opposition to the League of Nations, Congress passed the Knox-Porter Resolution bringing a formal end to hostilities between the United States and the Central Powers.
Treaty of Versailles impact on Germany • DIKTAT!! – Take it or leave it/imposed settlement • Germany's first democratically elected Chancellor, Phillip Schneidmann refused to sign the treaty and resigned. • The German economy was so weak that only a small percentage of reparations was paid in hard currency. Nonetheless, even the payment of this small percentage of the original reparations (132 billion Gold Reich marks) still placed a significant burden on the German economy. Finally paid of on October 3rd, 2010. • The economic strain eventually reached the point where Germany stopped paying the reparations agreed in the Treaty of Versailles. As a result French and Belgian forces invaded and occupied the Ruhr, a heavily industrialized part of Germany along the French-German border.
Impact of Treaty of Saint Germain • Treaty of St. Germain: The vast reduction of population, territory and resources of the new Austria relative to the old empire wreaked havoc on the economy of the new nation.
Impact of the Treaty of Trianon • Although the treaty addressed some nationality issues, it also sparked new ones at the same time. • After the new borders had been established, a majority of the 3.3 million Hungarians who lived in now-foreign lands were situated just outside the new border lines and were not given the option of self-determination and were unhappy.
Mandate System • A League of Nations mandate refers to certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I. Which included a minority rights clause and an International Court. The mandate system was established under Article 22 of the League of Nations. • All the territories subject to League of Nations mandates were previously controlled by states defeated in World War I, principally Germany and the Ottoman Empire.
Class A Mandates • The mandates were divided into three distinct groups based upon the level of development each population had achieved at that time. • Class A mandates • The first group or Class A mandates were areas formerly controlled by the Ottoman Empire that were deemed to have reached a stage of development where their existence as independent nations can be provisionally recognized subject to a lead country until they are able to stand alone.
Class B Mandates • Class B mandates • The second group or Class B mandates were all former German territories in the Sub-Saharan regions of West and Central Africa, which were deemed to require a greater level of control by the mandatory power: "...the Mandatory must be responsible for the administration of the territory under conditions which will guarantee freedom of conscience and religion." The mandatory power was forbidden to construct military or naval bases within the mandates.
Class C mandates • Class C mandates • A final group, the Class C mandates, including South-West Africa and the South Pacific Islands, were considered to be "best administered under the laws of the Mandatory as integral portions of its territory“. • They essentially became colonies of the Mandates. • The Class C mandates were former German possessions.
4. What were the mechanisms used for the enforcement of the provisions of the treaties: US isolationism—the retreat from the Anglo–American Guarantee; disarmament—Washington, London, Geneva conferences.
US Isolationism • In the wake of the First World War, the isolationist tendencies of US foreign policy were in full force. First, the United States Congress rejected president Woodrow Wilson’s League of Nations. • Although the United States was unwilling to commit to the League of Nations, they were willing to engage in foreign affairs on their own terms. In August 1928, fifteen nations signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, brainchild of American Secretary of State Frank Kellogg and French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand. This pact that was said to have outlawed war and showed the United States commitment to international peace.
Anglo-American Guarantee • The French still regarded the Germans as a major threat to their security after WWI. They wanted Germany divided into separate states, or, failing that, they wanted extensive precautions against future German aggression. The French were promised an Anglo-American guarantee of French borders. • Without consulting their militaries, Lloyd George and Wilson offered the Treaty to the French as a means to head off the separation of the Rhineland from Germany. The Treaty of Guarantee achieved widespread bipartisan support in the United States Senate and in the British Parliament. When the Versailles Treaty failed to achieve ratification in the Senate, however, the Treaty of Guarantee sank with it. This led Lloyd George to renege on his commitment, too.
Washington Naval Conference • The Washington Naval Conference also called the Washington Arms Conference, was a military conference called by President Harding and held in Washington D.C. from Nov. 12 1921 to Feb. 6, 1922. Conducted outside the auspices of the League of Nations, it was attended by nine nations having interests in the pacific ocean and east Asia. • The Washington Naval Treaty led to an effective end to building new battleship fleets and those few ships that were built were limited in size and armament. Numbers of existing capital ships were scrapped. Some ships under construction were turned into aircraft carriers instead.
London Naval Treaty • The London Naval Treaty was an agreement between the United Kingdom, Japan, France, Italy and the United States, signed on April 22, 1930, which regulated submarine warfare and limited naval shipbuilding.
Geneva Naval Conference • The Geneva Naval Conference was a conference held to discuss naval arms limitation, held in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1927. • Badly needed restraints were applied to the naval arms race by the treaties stemming from the Washington Conference (1921-22), but those agreements were largely confined to limitations on battleships and aircraft carriers. • Talks dragged on for nearly six weeks during which tensions rose among the former Allies. In early August, the delegates adjourned without reaching any agreement.
5. Explain the role of the League of Nations: effects of the absence of major powers; the principle of collective security and early attempts at peacekeeping (1920‑5).
League of Nations • The League of Nations was an inter-governmental organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920. The League's goals included upholding the new found rights of man, rights of women, rights of soldiers, disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation, diplomacy and improving global quality of life. • The diplomatic philosophy behind the League represented a fundamental shift in thought from the preceding hundred years. The League lacked its own armed force and so depended on the Great Powers to enforce its resolutions, keep to economic sanctions which the League ordered, or provide an army, when needed, for the League to use.
Weaknesses of the League • The origins of the League as an organization created by the Allied Powers as part of the peace settlement to end the First World War led to it being viewed as a "League of Victors". It also tied the League to the Treaty of Versailles, so that when the Treaty became discredited and unpopular, this reflected on the League of Nations. • The League's supposed neutrality tended to manifest itself as indecision. It required a unanimous vote of its nine, later fifteen, member Council to enact a resolution; hence, conclusive and effective action was difficult, if not impossible. It was also slow in coming to its decisions as certain decisions required the unanimous consent of the entire Assembly.
Absence of Major Powers • Representation at the League was often a problem. Though it was intended to encompass all nations, many never joined, or their time as part of the League was short. Most notably missing was America who was supposed to help ensure world peace and security but also in financing the League. • Some have suggested that, had the United States been a member of the League, it would have also provided backup to France and Britain, possibly making France feel more secure and so encouraging France and Britain to co-operate more regarding Germany and so made the rise to power of the Nazi party less likely. • Some also acknowledge that if America had been a member of the League, its reluctance to engage in war with European states and to enact economic sanctions may have hampered the ability of the League to deal with international incidents.
Failure of Collective Security • Another important weakness grew from the contradiction between the idea of collective security and international relations between individual states. The collective security system the League used meant that nations were required to act against states they considered friends, and in a way that might endanger their national interests, to support states that they had no affinity with. • This weakness was exposed during the Abyssinia Crisis when Britain and France had to balance attempts to maintain the security they had attempted to create for themselves in Europe, in which Italy's support played a pivotal role, with their obligations to Abyssinia as a member of the League. • On 23 June 1936, British Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin told the House of Commons that collective security had "failed ultimately because of the reluctance of nearly all the nations in Europe to proceed to what I might call military sanctions ... The real reason, or the main reason, was that we discovered in the process of weeks that there was no country except the aggressor country which was ready for war.”
Resolving territorial disputes • The aftermath of World War I left many issues to be settled between nations, including the exact position of national boundaries and which country particular regions would join. Most of these questions were handled by the victorious Allied in bodies such as the Allied Supreme Council. • The Allies tended to refer only particularly difficult matters to the League. This meant that, during the first three years of the 1920s, the League played little part in resolving the turmoil that resulted from the war. • The questions the League considered in its early years included those designated by the Paris Peace treaties.
Upper Silesia • After the First World War, Poland laid claim to Upper Silesia, which had been part of Prussia. The Treaty of Versailles had recommended a plebiscite in Upper Silesia to determine whether the territory should be part of Germany or Poland. • Complaints about the attitude of the German authorities led to rioting and eventually to the first two Silesian Uprisings (1919 and 1920). • In November 1921 a conference was held in Geneva to negotiate a convention between Germany and Poland. A final settlement was reached, in which most of the area was given to Germany but with the Polish section containing the majority of the region's mineral resources and much of its industry. • When this agreement became public in May 1922, bitter resentment was expressed in Germany, but the treaty was still ratified by both countries.